History Podcasts

Phaistos Disk (Side B)

Phaistos Disk (Side B)

Phaistos Disc -Arvanites in Greece

The poem (wb: which the author of the article has deciphered) is written on one side of the disc known as that of Phaistos. The disc which presently is preserved in Heraklion Archeological Museum in Crete, was discovered by the Italian archeologist Luigi Premier on 3.7.1908 during excavations in the Phaistos old palace, which it is estimated to have been in use about 1850-1600 B.C. The disc made of ceramic clay has a diameter of 158-165 and width of 16-21 millimeters, and by the fact of where it was found, it is thought that it was preserved in the archive of the palace.

Phaistos is one of the more important cities of Minoan Crete during the second millennium B.C., and presently serves as an ideal archeological center. Its name has had no elucidation, but is considered pre-Greek, and I think relates to the name of god Ifestos Ιfaistos,Ήφαιστος, on which the beginning letter I (H) has been dropped. The historian Diodor Siqelioti (5,78) considers Minos who is mentioned by Homer in Iliad (song 3, line 648) and Odysseus (Song 3, line 296) as its founder. According to archeologies, the Minoan period starts 2,600 B.C. and the first Phaistos was built about 2000 B.C. with dry stone…

The palace was destroyed by an earthquake about 1730 B.C., and on the ruins, a more magnificent one was built which was also destroyed, this time by a fire about 1600 B.C. It is miraculous that it survived the fire after being baked in high temperatures. Researchers indicate it is considered the first typographic monument because the text was stamped on two soft argil plaques and attached together. Of more importance, they indicate are the type of writing and the symbols in it. As for the purpose of putting it together or the name of the maker remain an archeological mystery.

The fact is that this theme has not attracted much study, but the prevailing thinking that the symbols exhibited in the disc have not been found elsewhere is not correct and I will present ancient data, which also refer to two of the Phaistos Disc symbols, the first is a coin from Kerkyra, also called island of Epirus, on which shows a symbol which appears four times on the Phaistos Disc.

The second exhibit refers to a charm referred to in Latin as that of Abraxas, at the center of the inscription that Abraxas holds, is shown the symbol that appears twice on Phaistos Disc. Connections of ancient Kerkyra with the language of Arvanites, and generally of the Albanians can be traced deep in the history of this island, knowing that before placement of Greek colonists from Eritrea, Euboea in the 8th or 9th century, Kerkyra was inhabited by the Illyrians. The other charm, the body of a man with a rooster head, a fantastic figure, which today’s christians characterize satanic and accursed, on which is written in Greek the Arvanite name ΒΡΑCA (ΒΡΑΣΑ,Vrasa), meaning killer/executioner, to an Arvanite origin of the figure.

In research for more information about the figure with the rooster head, and whose name ΤΥΔΥΣ (TYDHYS) is shown on the shield, in Greek it is known as Tidheus (Τυδεύς). It is known that Tidheus (Τυδεύς) was son of Oineas (Οινέα), the king of Etolia (Αιτωλίας), an area on the Ionian coast. As to why he earned the designation Vrasa (Βράσα) or Vrases (wb-in Alb.) we find in Apollodori, in the following:

“When Tydeus had grown to be a gallant man he was banished for killing, as some say, Acanthus, brother of Oeneus but according to the author of the Alcmaeonid his victims were the sons of Melas who had plotted against Oeneus, their names being Phones, Euryalus, Hyperlaus, Antiochus, Eumedes, Sternops, Xanthippus, Sthenelaus but as Pherecydes will have it, he murdered his own brother Olefinas. Being arraigned by Agrius, he fled to Argos and came to Adrastus…” (The Library, I. viii. 5-6)

For the fact that coins from Kerkyra with the symbol of a cow giving milk to a calf, a symbol that is found in most of the coins from the so called Greek colonies of Apollonia and Epidam, the later Dyrrah, I was impressed by a silver bi-stater from Karisto (Κάρυστο), Euboea, which shows the same theme.

Working Title/Artist: Vase in the shape of a cock
Department: Greek & Roman Art
HB/TOA Date Code: 04
Working Date: second half of 7th century B.C.
photography by mma, Digital File
retouched by film and media (jnc) 3_4_10

Knowing that even today in Karisto is spoken Arvanitic, and taking the rooster that is shown on the other side of the two coins, as an ethnic symbol of the population of Karisto, it would be logical to conclude that even if the alphabet that is shown on the rooster shaped ink bottle below is not Karisto’s ancient alphabet, it could have been appropriately for the language of this ancient city. The Viterbo ceramic ink bottle, characteristic of “buccheri” technology, typified by shiny black color with fine separations, has been found in Viterbi, Tirrenia and is dated to VII B.C., and today is exhibited at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The text in the Phaistos disc which is written helicoidal type with symbolic figure, commencing from the center on both sides and ending outside, graphic type similar to today, that is writing from the left to right. The soundness of this assumption is evidenced with the six symbols involving people, all of who look rightward. For embossing have been used 46 various symbol pressers/stmps, with a total of 241 stamps, 123 of them, as I call, from the initial stage, and 118 others.

These 46 symbols or figures, each with its own pronunciation and sound were insufficient to convey the Arvanitic language. The creator of the alphabet, through four of these symbols was able to supplement an additional 7 others by turning their stamping or graphic of their figure. The symbols from the original table which I call the Phaistos disc alphabet, which I listed all symbols as I deciphered them on one side, and then adding a column indicating how many times the symbols have show up.

Realizing that the Phaistos disc is in Arvanite language, I considered various known alphabets of this language. In midst of many of them, I found one that also has 53 letters, similar to that of Phaistos disc alphabet, which in Epirus is known with the name of “Alfabeti i Dhaskal Thodh”. This alphabet is most appropriate for interpretation of Arvanitic, and generally of the southern Albanian dialect. In the western European bibliography it is listed under the name of “Alphabeti i Elbasanit”. From the book “Das Buch der Shrift”, authored by Austrian Carl Faulmann, I will include below a copy of the table of the alphabet, identified as “Schrift von Elbassan”.

It is identified as “Alfabeti i Elbasanit” because it was found, better say preserved, in Elbasan. Johann Georg von Hahn, a distinguished 19th century researcher in language, tradition and geography, devotes a full article about this alphabet in his book “Albanesische Studien”.

Phaistos disc

The Phaistos disc is a bronze age artifact. The disc is about 15 centimetres (5.9 in) in diameter and is made of clay. It is covered with many symbols. It is from the civilization of Minoa on the Greek island of Crete, possibly from the 2nd millennium BC.

The symbols cover both sides of the disc. They show everyday things. They were stamped onto the disc, pressed into the clay when it was still soft. They run in a spiral. This disc is the first known "printed" work in history in the sense that there was a re-usable set of characters and drawings. It is the only artefact of its kind. Many questions have been asked about the disc, about its purpose, and if the signs shown actually represent writing.

In total, there are 242 tokens on the disc, taken from a set of 45 unique signs. There are arranged in 61 groups, separated by lines. Groups are between two and seven stamps long. Because the "text" is very short, and the disc is unique, it is likely that it will not be deciphered. [1]

Is the Phaistos disk a phony?

The Phaistos Disk is one of the more enigmatic and bizarre artifacts in the field of ancient writing systems. Found in Crete in 1908 by the archaeologist Luigi Pernier and associated archaeologically with the Minoan civilization (dating to roughly 1850 – 1600 BCE), it remains completely undeciphered and has no obvious connection either to the Minoan (Linear A) script or to any other known script, deciphered or otherwise. Now, a very notable claim has been made by the American art historian / art dealer Jerome Eisenberg, an expert on forgeries, that the Disk was in fact an elaborate hoax constructed by Pernier himself, which Eisenberg has published in his own magazine, Minerva (Eisenberg 2008).

I’m not an expert on Minoan writing by any means, but my scholarly focus lies heavily in the study of ancient scripts and the anthropology and archaeology of literacy. I use Yves Duhoux’ hilariously entitled ‘How not to decipher the Phaistos Disc’ in my course on the anthropology of literacy (Duhoux 2000). Moreover, the century of scholarship on the Phaistos Disk is legendarily riddled with cranks, frauds, and loons, and as I have more than a passing interest in pseudoarchaeology, Phaistos-related material is of ongoing interest to me. Honestly, it would make a lot of things a whole lot simpler if we could just deny the disk’s authenticity – but this is no ordinary hoaxbusting exercise, and the importance of the artifact demands that we give the claim close scrutiny.

Phaistos Disk, Side A. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Before we get to the Eisenberg claims, we need some context. So, firstly, what do we know about the PD?
– It is a fired clay disk, roughly 16 cm in diameter and 1-2 cm thick.
– It was found at a Minoan palace site at Phaistos in southern Crete.
– It appears to have been fired intentionally (with care) to produce a permanent record, whereas other Minoan documents were fired accidentally (e.g., when buildings were burned).
– Glyphs are stamped on both sides using distinct punches or stamps, not carved/incised into the clay.
– It has 241 signs in total, consisting of 45 distinct characters / glyphs. However, the total ‘signary’ (all the signs in the system) was probably greater, since some rare signs almost certainly do not appear in this particular text.
– The ‘text’ is divided into 61 sections of up to 5 characters apiece.
– The prior two facts suggest that it may have been a syllabic writing system, recording syllables rather than single phonemes it has too many unique signs to be an alphabet but too few to be a logographic (word-signs) or some other sort of system. However, this does not rule out the possibility that it was not phonetic writing at all (e.g., if it was a calendar or a game).
– Because the signs in the centre are slightly compressed, it seems to have been written from the outside spiralling inward.
– Judging by the overlap in some signs, it was stamped/written from right to left, suggesting that that is how it was meant to be read.
– There is no useful resemblance of the glyphs to those of any other writing system in the Mediterranean or elsewhere, although it was found in close association with a Linear A (Minoan) tablet.
– Its date is established solely through its archaeological context, and while the early second millennium is the most likely period, it may date as late as 1400 BCE.

Now, on to Eisenberg’s paper. The first thing worth noting is this is not a peer-reviewed academic venue, and the author is the founder, editor, and publisher of the magazine. A better analogy would be to think of it as editorial opinion. It also is not the result of any particular new research undertaken by Eisenberg or anyone else. In fact, as seen in the comments here, Dr. Eisenberg has been making this claim for nearly a decade, and there is no new evidence that demonstrates the likelihood that it was a forgery. Pernier, the artifact’s excavator excavator, is labelled as a forger, not on the basis of any particular evidence, but has simply been ascribed motives (rightly or wrongly) that might lead him to falsify the document. So we don’t have anything like the revelations in the early 1950s that debunked the Piltdown hoax on the basis of physical or chemical analysis neither do we have the spectactular video evidence that revealed Fujimura Shinichi planting fake discoveries at his sites in the Japanese Paleolithic hoax in 2000 (Hudson 2005). It is a highly circumstantial case. It is nonetheless one that ought to be vetted seriously, both because it is plausible on its face and because Eisenberg has been responsible for several other (much more solid) hoax-busting episodes over the past few decades.

The starting point for Eisenberg’s claim of a Phaistos ‘hoax’ is the uniqueness of the artifact, both the object itself and the writing on it. Given that no other examples of this form of writing have been found, it is striking (pun intended) that its creator would have made 45 distinct seals to stamp into the clay rather than simply incising the signs as necessary. No actual stamps/seals resembling the signs have been found, either, suggesting that this early instance of ‘movable type’ was used to create only one artifact, and then the process was abandoned entirely. In his popular Guns, Germs and Steel, the evolutionary biogeographer Jared Diamond (1997: 239-259) asserts that the PD was indeed a very early and remarkable example of movable type, but one that could not be exploited by the Minoans because in other respects their society lacked the technology and organizational expertise to develop it further. Eisenberg’s perspective is different – he argues that the uniqueness of the artifact’s medium suggests that it is a hoax, designed by Pernier to intrigue and mystify other scholars and to boost his own prominence, and that of Phaistos, in relation to his rivals (particularly Arthur Evans).

The PD is a singular artifact and a very short text, making it literally impossible to decipher unless more examples of the writing system are found. Yet John Chadwick, whose career was built upon his work with Michael Ventris in deciphering the Mycenaean Linear B script (Chadwick 1990), was plagued by purported Phaistos decipherers and purportedly received one new solution per month there is a fairly thorough list of purported decipherments in this Wikipedia article. Basically, every remotely plausible script tradition has been claimed as an influence, and the disk itself has been asserted to be in languages ranging from Greek to Egyptian to Basque to Atlantean (. ). Alternately, it has been suggested to be a game board, a calendrical document, or some sort of mystical text. Unless more documents in the same script are found, no one is going to be able to resolve the matter definitively. If it were confirmed to be a hoax, however, everyone could just stop looking. Eisenberg is suggesting, in effect, that the futility of the search rests in part on Pernier’s ingenuity in creating such a mystery.

The crux of Eisenberg’s argument, however, lies in the physical properties of the artifact: the fact that it was very carefully, intentionally fired, and that it has a very cleanly cut edge in comparison to other Minoan clay tablets, and here, he finds fault with Pernier. Because it is so different from other Minoan clay artifacts in this regard, this sends up a red flag for Eisenberg suggesting that its uniqueness may be due to Pernier’s ignorance of these facts. The counterargument to this, however, would be that while Minoan clay tablets with Linear A writing are all economic documents not intended for long-term archiving, the PD, if ancient, is almost certainly of a very different textual genre and script tradition than these texts. This doesn’t disprove the notion that it may be a hoax, but neither does it act as substantial confirmation. For instance, if the disk is a gaming board, a calendar, or a devotional inscription, its makers would have a good reason to fire the clay at the time of manufacture, and a potentially good reason to cut its edges so cleanly. It simply was not the same sort of text as the copious clay economic documents. We need to answer the question, “Could the Minoans have chosen to preserve some forms of information permanently and not others?”

One potential resolution to the mystery lies in its dating. The artifact has never undergone any sort of radiometric dating, and indeed for most of the past century could not have been dated except through archaeological context, as discussed above. However, thermoluminescence dating allows archaeologists to non-destructively determine the date when clay was fired, and if TL dating were used on the disk, one could find out if it was truly of ancient manufacture. Yet this test has not been permitted by the museum that holds it (in Heraklion, Crete), because, Eisenberg claims, “no Greek scholar or politician would dare to help ‘destroy’ such a national treasure”. This is unfortunately true museums are rarely open to this sort of inquiry, even from major scholars. Archaeology is frequently tied up in nationalistic fervor and institutional pride, and the failure to undertake a standard, well-accepted test will haunt the study of the Disk from now on, now that the claim has been made so publicly. Thus, I regard Eisenberg’s public claim as a valuable stimulus, hopefully forcing the issue of the thermoluminescence dating. It would also be highly informative even if the PD proves to be ancient, because the TL could establish whether it was an early second millennium artifact (1800-1600 BCE) or more in the range of 1400 BCE.

Ultimately, this is suggestive, and I would not exactly be astonished if Eisenberg’s claim were to be verified, and if the PD turned out to be a fake, but I cannot agree that the matter is now settled. Because literacy is not simply an ‘on/off’ phenomenon – we must deal with the possibility of different text genres, different media, and different purposes for writing – we can’t use the Linear A clay economic documents to prove the disk’s anomalous nature. A date from an independent lab would go a long way toward resolving my doubts. This would still leave the question of how it was done and by whom – remember that there is no direct evidence against Pernier. However, I for one look forward to this claim receiving greater attention over the next couple of years.

Phaistos disc

The Phaistos disc is a bronze age artifact. The disc is about 15 centimetres (5.9 in) in diameter and is made of clay. It is covered with many symbols. It is from the civilization of Minoa on the Greek island of Crete, possibly from the 2nd millennium BC.

The symbols cover both sides of the disc. They show everyday things. They were stamped onto the disc, pressed into the clay when it was still soft. They run in a spiral. This disc is the first known "printed" work in history in the sense that there was a re-usable set of characters and drawings. It is the only artefact of its kind. Many questions have been asked about the disc, about its purpose, and if the signs shown actually represent writing.

In total, there are 242 tokens on the disc, taken from a set of 45 unique signs. There are arranged in 61 groups, separated by lines. Groups are between two and seven stamps long. Because the "text" is very short, and the disc is unique, it is likely that it will not be deciphered. Ώ]

Phaistos Disk (Side B) - History

Table of Contents for the Scan of the Main Pages of the Book:
The Phaistos Disc:
Hieroglyphic Greek with Euclidean Dimensions
- The "Lost Proof" of Parallel Lines" -
by Andis Kaulins, Copyright © 1980


Page iv . Linguistic Research, Jacob Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik
Page v . Title Page "The Phaistos Disc: Hieroglyphic Greek. "
Page vi . Start Point and Direction of Disc Reading - Side A
Page vii . Start Point and Direction of Disc Reading - Side B
Page viii . Science and the Mind, James Clerk Maxwell
Page ix . Table of Contents in the book w/o Introductory pages

Page 1 . Introduction, Pernier's finding of the Disc, Importance
Page 4 . First Studies of the Phaistos Disc by Others
Page 7 . Recent Studies by others, abstract of article by Stefan Hiller
Page 7 . M. Pope on test of decipherment
Page 7 . J.J. Gelb on methods of decipherment
Page 8 . E.J.W. Barber on decipherment of the Phaistos Disc
Page 9 . Paul J. Muenzer on failings of previous decipherment efforts
Page 10 . G. Neumann on problems raised by decipherment efforts
Page 11 . Duhoux establishes basic facts about the Phaistos Disc, including the direction of writing - from right to left - and the reading from outside inwards
Page 12 . D. Schürr on the syllabic nature of the writing
Page 12 . P. Meriggi on the connection of Side A to Side B
Page 13 . V. Georgiev on similarities to Hieroglyphic Hittite symbols
Page 14 . Chart of past decipherment efforts

Page 16 . Beginnings of the new decipherment effort by Andis Kaulins
Page 22 . Was the Script Syllabic or Ideographic ?
Page 23 . What was the Language of the Phaistos Disc ?
Page 25 . Test - Distribution of Initial Letters and Syllables by Languages
Page 29 . Assignment of Syllabic Values - Process
Page 36 . Distribution and Frequency of Symbols - Positional Placement

Page 38 . Resulting Syllabic Grid on the model of Michael Ventris and Linear B
Page 39 . Similar Symbols and the Kober Method Applied
Page 40 . Nature and Meaning of the Disc - Various Considerations
Page 44 . M. Palmaitis on Indo-European and Baltic - Using Baltic as a Helper
Page 45 . Decipherment of the Disc by Andis Kaulins - by Individual Symbols
Each Symbol is analyzed for Greek and Baltic comparables

Page 75 . Transcription and Reading of the Disc as very Ancient Greek
Page 77 . Chart of the Transcription - Side A
Page 80 . Chart of the Transcription - Side B

The Disk is a mathematical lemma of parallel lines,
surely arising originally from the use of astronomy for geodetic purposes,
where convergence of longitudes toward the poles is a problem for geodetic survey.

Page iv

Phaistos Disk (Side B) - History

c0 through c9 = 20 through 29

d0 through d9 = 30 through 39

e0 through e5 = 40 through 45

The context of history and its pitfalls.

Classical scholars are a conservative lot by nature. They have often been guided by their co-science archaeology. The understanding of language must fit the facts of history as such facts are understood. This is a sound argument on the surface. The seductive pitfall here is: what is a correct understanding of history as revealed by archaeology?

The quintessential trap that the scholar can fall into is one promoted by Sir Arthur Evans, the person given the greatest credit for the discovery of the long vanished Minoan civilization - 'Minoan' being a termed coined by Evans referring to the mythical King Minos of Knossos. Though insightful to the level of brilliance, Sir Arthur essentially became the heir and ruler of the modern manifestation of King Minos' empire with his Villa Ariadne and the reconstructed palace at Knossos, the reconstruction being fraught with controversy.

It is true that the science of archaeology was in its infancy in the late 19th century when a past civilization centered at Knossos on the island of Crete first came to the light of day after centuries of being buried in the dark earth. Some rash choices and indescretions would be expected, given the conditions of the time. However, the pitfall that Evans' thinking fell upon, even to his final days, was his vested interest in protecting the civilization that he had in essence discovered. In the legal world his arguments would have to be tempered by his conflict of interest: he would not and apparently could not acknowledge the possibility that the Mycenaeans could have been the masters of Knossos and the empire in its final days.

How does this reflect on language and its decipherment? Because of an investment in power, Evans could not allow the possibility that the Mycenaeans, subjects of their Minoan overlords, could rule over their masters. The power that Arthur Evans held in the world of classical scholarship long prevented many linguists from even the possibility of reading Linear B as Mycenaean rather than Minoan.

It is important here not to fall back into the same trap by assuming that the hieroglyphics of the Phaistos clay disk must be Mycenaean - I might add, a statistically improbable assumption. This is of course not to say that it is impossible that the writing on the disk (if it be writing) is a predecessor of Mycenaean Greek. Because the dating of the disk at 1700 - 1600 b.c. is a good 400 years earlier than the height of the Mycenaean rule over the mainland and certainly over the island cities of Crete, it would be unlikely that an artifact of such skilled crafting would reflect the culture of an as yet unrealized and still subject people.

Regardless of one's language attitude as to whether the disk might be read as either Indo-European (related to Mycenaean or Hittite) or as Minoan (most probably then Semitic), regardless of the choice, the question of a civilization context must be given some satisfactory answers. Linear B, both in its decipherment and its subsequent reading, reinforce the context which has generally come to be accepted: a Mycenaean speaking people subject to their Minoan overlords, gradually in the 14th and 13th centuries began to seize power, first on the mainland and then on the island of Crete itself, becoming the overlords of the Minoans. This was the high point of Mycenaean civilization which was somewhat short lived with wholesale destruction of their city fortresses around 1200 b.c., part of a larger social upheaval and destruction throughout the Aegean, Anatolia and Palestine. A crush of peoples, often referred to as the Sea People from Egyptian records and stopped by a naval victory by the Egyptians about 1190 b.c. by the fleet and army of Ramesses III.

Given the state of all the evidence at this point in time, it is difficult to contest this picture in its larger scheme. From archaeology, language study, surviving literature, and what understanding we have of Minoan and Mycenaean religion, the picture looks coherent. A seapower whose authority is centered on the island of Crete holds dominion over the surrounding islands of the Aegean and east Mediterranean seas, its influence extending to the southern mainland of the Greek peninsula. A resident people from the Caucassus, the Mycenaeans (so named after their chief citidel) speak a language which we later know from their records in Linear B. Linear B itself is an adaptation of an earlier syllabic script in use at the time of the Minoan overlords and found in their cities. The Mycenaean language deciphered from Linear B by Michael Ventris and John Chadwick is a Greek dialect with traces of the Aeolic and Arcadian dialects and apparently precedes the traditional arrival of the Dorians. The Doric dialect can be found along the west coast of the peninsula where it surrounds a mountainous and rugged interior where the Arcadian dialect lived on. Traces of this Arcadian and the oldest dialect, Aeolic of the northeast peninsula (Beotia) and the north eastern islands around Lesbos and the mainland of Anatolia near the excavation of Troy (Illios) are consistent with the Mycenaean of Linear B. What does this say in context? A tribe, traditionally the Achaeans or Danaoi, migrated as did all Greek tribes from the Caucasas region bordering the steppes of the high Asian grasslands into the Aegean mainland and the islands bordering Illios on Anatolia. Nomadic and alien to the established culture of the Minoans, these Achaeans settled at the fringes of the Minoan power. Attracted by the lure of a wealthy and highly refined civilization, the Achaeans lived in submission to their overlords, gradually becoming stronger until some trauma (possibly the enormous erruption of the volcano on Thera - now Santorini) began the eclipse of the Minoan authority. Over two centuries the transition took place first on the mainland where the citidels of Mycenae, a mountain fortress and Tiryns, a powerful seaport, began to consolidate the control of the Argive plain. This was the begining of the end for the Minoans on the mainland and only a matter of time till they were conquered in their island seat of power, Knossos.

Over time, I will add some references giving greater detail to the above description. This picture of evolving and declining culture is generally not disputed these days except in some of the details, but not so much in the overall scheme. It is a picture drawn from the results of many different disciplines over the past 150 years since the first discoveries of Niniva in Iraq, the cities of the Hittites in Turkey, the Greek fortresses of Mycenae, Tiryns, and Pylos on the Greek peninsula, Knossos and Phaistos on Crete, and by now many others. The picture largely remains consistent.

The strong argument against a Minoan origin of the disk however is symbol 06 (a6), the female figure whose flounced skirt and bare breast is of Minoan style, but even the smallest and most delicate Minoan seal rings show the female figure with a narrow 'wasp waist'. The high craftsmanship of the disk as a whole and yet the very un-Minoan presentation of the female figure, the priestess being very significant in Minoan culture, all indicate an origin other than Minoan.

One final note about the symbols in the chart above:

If the symbols represent a language

and if the language is semitic,

then (with high probability) the symbol 29

Symbol 29 (c9) occurs with repetion as the first symbol of groups in sequence on Side A, as in a list. (Of course a7 has an almost analogous relationship in the next ring - not a neat process until it is genuinely figured out. One thing is clear though, there is a very tight structure underlying this array of symbols.)

d5,c0,c4,c4,c9 *
b8,b4,b6 *
a1,d3,c9 *
d3,d9,d2,d6,a6 *
a1,c7,a9,a2 *
a8,a7,d6,c9 *
b3,a8,c9 *
a7,e5,c9 *
a8,a7,d6,c9,c2 *

The difference between c9 and a7 is that a7 occurs in many positions, while c9 only is used in this context. My count for the usage of a7 on Side A is 15 times, only 4 of those being the first symbol in the prefix 'and' position (reading the word from right to left as is usual in Semitic languages). The symbol c9 is only used in this context on both A and B sides (or , as in two instances on Side A, in the second position which could still allow its use as an enclitic prefix). If the language is Indo-European and is read from left to right, c9 would be a suffix symbol as in a grammatical case ending.

Could the disk be Carian from the Cyclades, Rhodes or Miletus?

I leave this page with a quote from the linguist Cyrus Gorden:

"In summary, the Eteocretan texts are Northwest Semitic with strong Aramaic affinities. There is every reason to accept the long-held view that Minoan is the parent language of Eteocretan. The widely distributed votive texts in Linear A are in the same Semitic language that we may safely regard as the official language of Minoan civilization." 1

1 Cyrus H. Gorden, Forgotten Scripts. Their Ongoing Discovery and Decipherment. p. 143. Dorset Press, New York, 1987.

The Phaistos Disc: A 3,800-Year-Old Archaeological Mystery

Image Credit: Flickr / Ann Wuyts.

The so-called Phaistos disc is a circular clay artifact recovered from the Minoan palace of Phaistos on the island of Crete in 1908, by archaeologist Luigi Pernier.

Most scholars agree that the disc dates to the middle or late Minoan Bronze Age (second millennium BC).

The enigmatic artifact bears an indecipherable message.

It features 241 tokens, made of 45 distinct signs, which were made by pressing hieroglyphic “seals” into a disc of soft clay, in a clockwise sequence spiraling toward the center of the disc.

As noted by researchers, there is evidence of ‘corrections’ made on the surface of the disc.

Palace complex at Phaistos. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

The Phaistos dis is imprinted on both sides. The disc measures 15 centimeters in diameter.

The exact purpose, meanings as well as its original geographical place of manufacture, remain a mystery, reason why the Phaistos disc is one of the most famous archeological mysteries on Earth.

The artifact is housed at archaeological museum of Heraklion, and most scholars argue that given its indecipherable message, it was crafted by a mysterious people, written in a lost language.

The side B of the disc of Phaistos, as displayed in the Archaeological Museum of Heraklion after the 2014 renovation. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

Professional archaeologists and code breakers have attempted to solve the mystery behind it by deciphering its message. And while many attempts were made to reveal its message, the Phaistos Disc has still not given up its secrets.

In fact, many scholars aren’t even sure where the strange symbols etched on its surface are even a script.

Nonetheless, most attempted decipherments have come to the conclusion it probably is either a syllabary, an alphabet or logography.

Most experts lean towards a syllabary, based on the proportion of 45 symbols in a text of 241 tokens typical for that type of script.

A Side view of the Phaistos Disk. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

Because of the countless mysteries surrounding the artifact, many scholars have proposed in the past that the disc is a forgery and a hoax.

Despite these suggestions, archeologists generally accept the disc as a genuine, archaeological artifact.

This assumption has been supported by the discovery of another artifact, the so-called Arkalochori Axe which bears similar but not identical glyphs on its surface.

Jared Diamond, author of ‘Guns, Germs, and Steel’ argues that the Phaistos Disc is an example of a technological advancement that didn’t become widespread in ancient time, because it was produced at the wrong time in history, and contrasts with the Gutenberg’s printing press.

Several researchers including German typesetter and linguist Herbert Brekle as well as Benjamin Schwartz believe the Phaistos Disc is an early document of movable type printing as it meets the essential criterion of typographic printing.

Yves Duhoux a Belgian classical philologist, linguist, and mycologist dates the disc to between 1850 BC and 1600 BC, based on Luigi Pernier’s report, which suggests that the Phaistos Disc was in a Middle Minoan undisturbed context.

Jeppesen (1963) puts the Disk to after 1400 BC.

Louis Godart argues that in an archaeological context, the Phaistos Disc may be anywhere in Middle or Late Minoan times

Most scholars argue that in order to understand the secrets of the Phaistos Disk, “a thermoluminescence test for the Phaistos Disc is imperative. It will either confirm that new finds are worth hunting for, or it will stop scholars from wasting their effort.”

Ancient World Blog

Ladies and Gentlemen, thank you for attending my presentation and thank you to the organizers and staff of this conference for making it possible for me to be here. We are in the halls of the arts, the sciences and antiquity at Burlington House, and today we may see history being made – in the field of communications. The Phaistos Disk is after all a communication and storage device.

In the modern era we all have our mobile cell phones, CDs and DVDs, and many of us take them for granted, but technology was not always so easy to understand. In the early days of telecommunications, for example, Albert Einstein explained radio by saying:


That is the Shakespearean question being posed here today.

Dr. Jerome Eisenberg has observed – correctly in my view – that the symbols on the Phaistos Disk were compiled piecemeal in part from other ancient sources. I agree. The only question is, was this done in the modern era, or 3 to 4 thousand years ago? Dr. Eisenberg has concluded that it was a modern forger, an archaeologist, who did it. But I think, to the contrary, that it was the ancient Greeks themselves who did it. And we have evidence for this conclusion.

Gaius Julius Hyginus (ca. 64 BC – AD 17), who lived at the time of Christ, passed on many Greek tales in unadulterated form in his Fabulae , of which Number 277 deals with "Ancient Inventors". He writes as follows:

The ancient record therefore confirms that the initial Greek letters, which constitute the origins of writing in Western Europe, were in fact a conglomeration of inputs, just as Dr. Eisenberg claims for the Phaistos Disk [we use Disk and Disc interchangeably here for the sake of the search engines since both terms are used]. Accordingly, this characteristic is no proof that the Phaistos Disk is not genuine. Quite the contrary, it is exactly what we would expect from ancient Greek letters, based on the historical record. The first Greek letters viz. symbols (or signs) were in fact taken from numerous ancient sources.

One of the inventors of Greek letters mentioned by Hyginus has a clear connection to Crete: Palamedes, son of Nauplius and Clymene, the daughter of Catreus, king of Crete, son of the first king of Crete, Minos, and grandfather of Menelaus, the Greek husband of Helen of Troy. Catreus was thus the grandfather of Palamedes.

Grandfather Catreus had numerous children. His two daughters he is said to have given to a merchant mariner, Nauplius, to be married off in foreign lands. This mariner instead took Clymene for himself and sailed off into the sunset. Where did they ultimately settle? Clymene in ancient Greek sources is also called Asia, which some allege is how the continent Asia got its name, thus pointing to a possible geographic Asian destiny. Indeed, Herodotus is puzzled by Ancient Greek usage of women's names to describe large areas such as Asia or Europe. But the answer – royal settlement - is clear.

It is her son Palamedes who subsequently surfaces as the greatest inventor in the history of Greece, for Palamedes not only allegedly invented eleven of the Greek letters, but it is also said that he invented counting, currency, weights and measures, military ranks, dice, pessoi (a type of chess), and made improvements in winemaking.

Amazing enough, but all of this could very well be true in the ancient era if the inventions of Palamedes were obtained by technology transfer from a foreign land, for Mercury (viz. Hermes) the bringer of letters, has the same meaning as "merchant". These inventions were brought to Greece from a distant land by traveling merchants.

As we have discovered, this land is Elam, the land – we claim here - where Clymene and Nauplius ultimately settled. It is the land in which letters were first stamped onto clay, just as on the Phaistos Disk, but long before it. An existing technology was thus imported into ancient Crete. We will discuss this in detail subsequently.

The second major argument raised by Dr. Eisenberg against the Phaistos Disk is the lack of corroborative texts. When Dr. Eisenberg initially asked me to present a paper at this conference, I declined, saying it was a losing proposition for me, since no probative proof of authenticity would be possible without corroborative texts. To my knowledge then, there were no such texts available, so it was pointless to come.

At Dr. Eisenberg's friendly insistence, I finally agreed to present a paper merely presenting my point of view that the Phaistos Disk was quite genuine, and giving my reasons for so believing. But in the course of research for this paper, a remarkable thing happened. I discovered two texts that contained symbols with a great deal of similarity to a number of symbols on the Phaistos Disk. These texts were from Elam and were written in Old Elamite Script. Could they be connected?

Indeed, when I applied the syllabic values for the Phaistos Disc that I had obtained 30 years previously, I was able to read those Old Elamite Scripts without difficulty. They were written in Ancient Greek language, and the author was presumably Palamedes, the son of Clymene, and the inventor of Greek letters.

The 1980 Decipherment of the Phaistos Disc by Andis Kaulins

In English, that Greek text could be read as follows:

  • Foreseen (are) -as given - standing straight lines (perpendiculars)
  • to be constructed (drawn). - To the side - of either such line segment
  • extend - a partner line - running - alongside. - The Problem (LEMMA):
  • Consider - whether these - Parallel Lines - extended - stay - Parallels.
  • Consider -whether these - Parallels - extended converge (diverge).
  • The synthetic - added line - would foresee - a medial (uncertain) - termination.
  • Extended (beyond bounds) - a fixed (converging) - termination.
  • Next to - the categorized - just constructed lines - and flat to
  • the side walls' - diameter - inscribe - a closed arc - and make it so that
  • the new line - curve - in its course - the side walls - diagonally - joins.
  • Tie together - yoked - the branched lines.
  • Connect - the standing straight lines - and branched lines.
  • Run a line so that - the newly created
  • geodetic lines - are met - and the branched lines - pair is yoked.
  • The promised -solution - is given.

If the parallel lines B, D and C [see Figure 5 ]
are extended to f and g [and beyond but short of infinity],
then the resulting angle x varies, [nearing 180 or 0 degrees]
depending on where line f and g is drawn.
Hence, the termination is uncertain.

As the parallels B, D and C are extended
beyond bounds (i.e. to infinity, or infinite ends),
then the angle x [measured from the center of the circle
to the lines drawn to the ends of the extensions
of the parallel lines B and C]
will get smaller and smaller towards D
as the lines B, D and C are extended,
thus suggesting a converging termination.

Figure 5 shows the resulting geometric figure. [13]

". [In the figure above] line AB is perpendicular to CD. If we permit it to rotate about A counterclockwise, it will intersect CD at various points to the right of B until it reaches a limiting position EF, when it becomes parallel to CD. Continuing the rotation, it will start to intersect CD to the left of B. Euclid assumed that there is only one position for the line, namely EF, when it would be parallel to CD. Lobachevsky assumed that there were two such positions, represented by A1B1 and C1D1, and further, that all lines falling within the angle θ, while not parallel to CD, would never meet it, no matter how far extended.

Now this is an assumption, and there is no sense in arguing from the diagram that it is evident that if A1B1 or C1D1 were intersected sufficiently far, they would eventually intersect CD. If, as Professor Cohen has pointed out, we rely wholly on our intuition of space, which is finite, there will always be an angle θ which grows smaller as our space is extended, but which never vanishes, and all lines falling within θ will fail to intersect the given line. [The reference is to Morris Raphael Cohen, Reason and Nature, p. 137.]"

Mainstream Archaeology and the Evaluation of Evidence

"The presence of so many fakes and hoaxes in archaeology is a function of the fact that your average archaeologist is virtually untrained in decipherment work or in the critical analysis of evidence. Archaeologists claim to have the expertise to interpret ancient texts and artifacts but in fact they generally do not have that competence. Archaeologists are for the most part diggers rather than decipherers or interpreters, who in their written allegedly scholarly work in fact often rely gullibly and uncritically on secondary sources (so-called authorities) within their own ranks, rather than engaging in independent critical thought or inquiry. The world's great decipherers have generally not been mainstream archaeologists. What the archaeologists should be doing and what they are good at is to examine the evidence of the actual PHYSICAL disk by modern dating methods to see if its age can be confirmed or amended, but exactly that is what they have not been doing. Hence, it is thus not surprising that persons such as [Dr. Eisenberg] challenge the genuineness of the Disk, an undertaking which is welcome to this writer, since it may help to force the archaeological community to get their act together and do what they are supposed to do and what they are good at doing.

At the root of the problem is also the hunger for power and authority, combined with wishful thinking. People tend to believe what serves their interests, what they want to believe and not necessarily what the evidence indicates to actually be true. Neutral objective fact-finding is thus not always present in science. One needs merely to read Breaking the Maya Code [22] by Michael D. Coe, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Yale University, for a moving account of how one self-serving and woefully erring academic authority torpedoed the correct Maya decipherment efforts of his opponents for nearly 40 years, and was even knighted for his folly to boot."

A critical and much disputed question over the years has been the direction of the writing of the Disc, and similar technical questions, such as which side was written first, etc. Hiller notes further in his article that great progress in this area has been made in recent years. Although it had long been suggested that the direction of the writing on the Disc was from right to left (and hence from the outer rim inwards), H. J. Hacker and E. Schellen in "Ein neues Argument for die rechtsläufige Leserichtung des Diskos von Phaistos", Kadmos , 10, 1971, pp. 20-27, challenged the old assumption with new arguments and thus forced the opposing side to establish its position on a sounder basis. This culminated in the works of J. Fauccounau, "La sens de L'ecriture du Disque de Phaistos", Kadmos , 14, 1975, pp. 94-96, J. P. Olivier, "Le Disque de Phaistos, Edition Photographique, BCH 99, 1975, pp. 5-34, A. Bradshaw, "The Imprinting of the Phaistos Disc", Kadmos 15, 1976, and Yves Duhoux, Le Disque de Phaestos. Archaeologie. Epigraphie. Edition critique. Index. (Louvain, Éditions Peeters, 1977).

Based on careful analysis of the original Disc itself, Duhoux determined, among other things: 1) that the Disc was likely written with a ready-made "model" at hand 2) that Side A was smoothened and flattened by hand and that Side B was smoothened and flattened as a result of the pressure applied on Side A 3) that the clay had begun to dry during the writing process, on the basis of which the order in which the sides were stamped can be determined: namely, Side A first and Side B second 4) that the spiral lines were drawn from the outside inwards 5) that the symbols were stamped from the outside inwards 6) that the separating lines were added after the symbols had been stamped: and, 7) that the writing runs from right to left."

Corroborative Elamite Script for the Phaistos Disc

"I am happy to see you have tackled this fun topic and that you thereby are keeping the Phaistos Disk in the public eye. The idea that the Phaistos Disk is a forgery is not new to me and there is no question that the lack of additional Minoan scripts using these symbols is a serious problem, not only in terms of the question of the genuineness of the Disk but also in terms of validation of any alleged decipherment of the Phaistos Disk."

[German] "Seinem Herrn Inshushinak, dem Menschenbildner (?), 2. habe ich Shilhak-Inshushinak, 3. der Statthalter von Susa, 4. der König des Landes Elam, 5. der Shempishhukische, 6. eine Säule (?) aus Kupfer (und) Zedernholz geweiht."

[Our English translation of that error-filled conversion] "For his master Inshushinak, the sculptor of human forms (?), I, Shilhak-Inshushinak, Administrator of Susa, King of Elam, has dedicated the Shempishhukische, an obelisk (or column) (?) of copper and cedar wood."

The Ancient Greek text in Figure 14 (i.e. Figures 8 and 9 ) reads in English:

It is now also possible to decipher the Old Elamite Script at Figure 12, as follows:

The Ancient Greek text in Figure 15 (i.e. Figure 12 ) reads in English:

Perhaps Nitokris was the true "Helen of Troy" [or Clymene] of ancient Greek legend.

"At this point it should be noted that the Khuzestan Plain (which with the Zagros foothills comprised the ancient land of Elam) represents a geographical extension of the great Mesopotamian alluvial plain. Mesopotamia, literally the "land between the two rivers," the Tigris and the Euphrates, has traditionally been regarded as a trough slowly filling with alluvial soil carried down from the Anatolia and Zagros mountains. (Elam was, and is, watered by the Karun River, a tributary of the Tigris.).

The surface gradients and underlying gravel deposits in the Susa region were advantageous in the early stages of the development of irrigation, since they permit an adequate flow during the winter growing season with relatively short and easily maintained canals. In addition, the pebbly soils in the upper portion of the Susa plain or Susiana as it was called in ancient times, receive natural subirrigation from underground springs , while rainfall from the mountains is carried out onto the plain some distance by numerous winter and spring freshets. This is one reason why the upper portion of the Susiana plains abounds in rich natural pasture land if not overgrazed and wild narcissi still flourish here. [emphasis added]

This and other evidence . suggests that man, having learned wheat and barley cultivation and sheep herding in the foothills and mountain valleys, made the vital transition from dry farming to irrigation agriculture on the Elamite or Susianian plain around Susa and that it was here, rather than in Mesopotamia proper - which after all lies only fifty miles to the west of Susa - that civilization as we know it truly began. [It is hoped such a flat assertion might arouse controversy. Elam and Susa have been so under-publicized it was still possible last year for . The March of Archaeology by C. W. Ceram to be published with only one mention of Susa or Elam, and that in the index.]

Many archeologists believe the earliest settlers of Mesopotamia came from Elam, where the villagers were of similar Sumerian-Semitic stock. But the origin of the Sumerians remains unestablished and we have only the Bible's " And as men migrated in the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there." Certainly, the " land between the two rivers " offered many attractions to the mountaineers and newly-settled plainsmen near Susa with its fish and fowl, easily-worked alluvial soil, many date palms to supplement a cereal diet and the annual flooding that always brought a fresh top dressing of silt."

The geographic placement of Troy toward Persia is also suggested by other evidence.

"Tyndareus Τυνδαρεύς (or Tyndareos Τυνδάρεως ) was a Spartan king. husband of Leda and [step]father of Helen. . Tyndareus' wife, Leda, was seduced by Zeus . disguised . as a swan. She laid two eggs, each producing two children . from one egg, Pollux and Helen were the children of Zeus from the other, Castor and Clytemnestra were the children of Tyndareus.

When Thyestes seized control in Mycenae, two exiled princes, Agamemnon and Menelaus came to Sparta. Tyndareus received them. Agamemnon married Clytemnestra. Helen . had many more suitors for she was the most beautiful woman in the world.

When it was time for [Helen] to marry, many . kings and princes came to seek her hand. Tyndareus [would not] send any of the suitors away for fear of . giving grounds for a quarrel. Odysseus proposed that, before the decision was made, all the suitors should swear a most solemn oath to defend the chosen husband against whoever should quarrel with the chosen one. This stratagem succeeded and Helen and Menelaus were married . Eventually, Tyndareus resigned in favor of his son-in-law and Menelaus became king of Sparta.

Some years later, Paris , a Trojan prince came to Sparta to marry Helen, whom he had been promised by Aphrodite. Helen fell in love with him and left willingly, (although it is also suggested that he may have simply kidnapped her, with neither theory being conclusively proven) leaving behind Menelaus and Hermione, their nine-year-old daughter.

Menelaus' attempts to retrieve Helen . caused the Trojan War. " [emphasis added]

"Sais or Sa el-Hagar was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic branch of the Nile."

A statue of Queen Napirasu, unique for its time, composed of 3760 pounds of bronze and copper, was found in Susa, and is today a part of the Iran collection in the Louvre. In that statue we thus see either Helen of Troy or Clymene as the life-size statue of Queen Napirasu ( Figure 17 ): [54]

The Louvre labels this statue as being:[56]

"Queen Napirasu, wife of King Untash-Napirisha [Nauplius could be the family name], circa 1340-1300 BC, Statue found at the Tell of the Acropolis, Susa, Iran, Bronze and copper, H.1.29 m L. 0.73 m, Jacques de Morgan excavations, 1903."

The Louvre writes further in more detail:[55]

"This statue is of Queen Napirasu, wife of Untash-Napirisha, who ruled in the Middle Elamite period as one of the greatest Igihalkid kings. Under this dynasty, a great Elamite empire flourished, taking advantage of the decline of neighboring Mesopotamia. Untash-Napirisha founded the city of Al-Untash-Napirisha and filled it with monuments decorated with statues, which are remarkable proof of the standard of Elamite metalworking techniques.

Queen Napirasu, Untash-Napirisha's wife, is shown standing. The figure is life-size, but the head and the left arm are damaged. She is wearing a short-sleeved gown covered in the sort of embroidery usually found on such garments. She has four bracelets on her right wrist and a ring on her left ring finger. Although her hands are crossed on her stomach, she is not in the pose usually associated with worship. The inscription on the front of the skirt is in Elamite, reflecting the kingdom's linguistic identity. This inscription gives the queen's name and titles, invokes the protection of the gods, describes the ritual offerings made to them, and calls down their curse on anyone bold enough to desecrate her likeness. The statue is placed under the protection of the god Beltiya and three deities associated with the Igihalkid Dynasty - the god Inshushinak, the god Napirisha, and his consort Kiririsha. These three deities are also depicted on the stele of Untash-Napirisha, also in the Louvre (Sb3973).

This statue of Queen Napirasu is a rare surviving likeness of a member of the royal court during the Middle Elamite period. The sheer amount of metal used - some 1,750 kg for a single work - reflects the wealth of the Elamite kingdom during Untash-Napirisha's reign. The dimensions and the finesse of the statue also reflect the skill of the Elamite metalworkers. The work must have been cast in two successive parts: a lost-wax cast for the copper and tin shell, followed by a full cast alloy of bronze and tin for the core, rather than the more usual refractory clay. The two parts are held together with pins and splints. The sides would have originally been covered with gold or silver.

The reign of the Igihalkid king, Untash-Napirisha, witnessed the launch of a major construction program. The king ordered the restoration of a large number of temples and also built a new religious capital, Al-Untash-Napirisha (sometimes simply known as Al-Untash), on the site of modern-day Chogha Zanbil. The aim was to unite the different religions practiced in his kingdom in one place. Monuments throughout the city were decorated with numerous sculptures commissioned by the king, including this statue of his wife, which was discovered in Susa but was probably moved there from Al-Untash.

Documentation [for the above citation]:

Amiet Pierre, Suse 6000 ans d'histoire, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1988, pp. 98-99 fig. 57.

Benoit A. , "Les Civilisations du Proche-Orient ancien", in Manuels de l'École du Louvre Art et archéologie, Paris, École du Louvre, 2003, pp 358-359 fig. 180.

Meyers Peter, "The casting process of the statue of queen Napir-Asu in the Louvre", extrait de : Journal of Roman Archaeology, supplementary series, n 39, Portsmouth, 2000, pp.11-18."


Excerpted from Khodadad Rezakhani, Elam , History of Iran [57]


American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Volume 137 Issue 2, Pages 213 - 223
Published Online: 23 May 2008
Copyright © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company

"Middle Eastern and European mtDNA lineages characterize populations from eastern Crete"
Laisel Martinez 1, Sheyla Mirabal 1, Javier R. Luis 2, Rene J. Herrera 1 *
-1 Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA 33199
-2 Departamento de Xenética, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Vigo, Galicia, Spain 15887
email: Rene J. Herrera ([email protected])
*Correspondence to Rene J. Herrera, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, University Park, Room OE304, Miami, FL 33199, USA
Laisel Martinez and Sheyla Mirabal contributed equally to the manuscript.

Minoan refugium • phylogenetic relationships •maternal lineage

Received: 17 November 2007, Accepted: 28 March 2008, Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1002/ajpa.20857

Y-chromosome DNA in Crete, Greece & the Levant

Annals of Human Genetics
Volume 72 Issue 2, Pages 205 - 214
Published Online: 5 Feb 2008
Journal compilation © 2008 University College London

"Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic"
R. J. King 1 , S. S. Özcan 2 , T. Carter 3 , E. Kalfoğlu 2 , S. Atasoy 2 , C. Triantaphyllidis 4 , A. Kouvatsi 4 , A. A. Lin 5, C-E. T. Chow 5 , L. A. Zhivotovsky 6 , M. Michalodimitrakis 7 and P. A. Underhill 5,*
-1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5722
-2 Institute of Forensic Sciences, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
-3 Department of Anthropology, McMaster University, Chester New Hall 524, 1280 Main Street West Hamilton, L8S 4L9, Ontario, Canada
-4 Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
-5 Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5120
-6 N. I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Gubkin Street, Moscow, 119991, Russia
-7 Department of Forensic Science, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
*Corresponding author: Peter A. Underhill, Department of Genetics, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5120, Fax: 650 725 1534. Phone: 650 723-5805. E-mail: [email protected]
Copyright 2008 The Authors Journal compilation � University College London

Y-chromosome diversity • Neolithic Greece • Crete • bread wheat • maritime migration • Bronze Age

Received: 29 September 2007, Accepted: 7 October 2007, Digital Object Identifier (DOI)10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x

Excerpts from the Text of the foregoing Article

Which Y-DNA Haplogroup best defines the connection between Crete, Mycenae, Greece and Elam in Iran?

It is "J2 - The Phoenician Gene" -- in a dispersion most likely be sea (maritime).

Time of origin: 18500 (+/- 3500) thousand years ago.
Place of origin: Mesopotamia (Iraq, Syria, Turkey & Iran), or the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Israel & Jordan) or Anatolia (Turkey) or Zagros mountains (Iran)
Ancestor: J, Defining mutations: M172
Typical members: Iraqis 29.7%, Lebanese 29.5%, Syrians 29%, Sephardic Jews 29%, Kurds 28.4%, Turks 27.9%, Georgians 26.7%, Iranians 23.3%, Ashkenazi Jews 23.2%, Greeks 22.8%, Tajiks 18.4%, Italians 19.3%, North Indians 7.8% viz. 19.8%, Pakistanis 14.7%, South Arabia (Oman, Yemen, UAE) 9.7%.


[1] J.D. (Doctor of Jurisprudence) Stanford University. Former Lecturer in Anglo-American Law, Legal Research and Legal Writing, University of Trier Law School. Co-author of the Routledge & Langenscheidt German-English, English-German Dictionary of Business, Commerce and Finance (3rd ed. 2007). Author of the following: The Phaistos Disc: Hieroglyphic Greek with Euclidean Dimensions (Darmstadt, 1980) , Stars Stones and Scholars : The Decipherment of the Megaliths , Trafford, 2003 & 2006 Waren die Pharaonen Legastheniker? (Were the Pharaohs Dyslexic?) , Dyslexia Journal , 1998 Zum Ursprung des Horus-Glaubens im vordynastischen Ägypten (The Origin of the Cult of Horus in Predynastic Egypt) , Efodon Synesis, 2005 Sternensteine - Darstellungen frühgeschichtlicher Astronomie am Beispiel der Externsteine (Star Stones -Prehistoric Astronomy and the Extern Stones) , Forschungskreis Walther Machalett für Vor und Frühgeschichte, 2005 Die Himmelsscheibe von Nebra: Beweisführung und Deutung (The Sky Disk of Nebra: Evidence and Interpretation) , Efodon Synesis, 2005 Der Bodenhimmel der Oesterholzer Mark um die Spitze der "Externsteinpyramide" (A Megalithic Sky Map at Oesterholz) , Efodon Synesis, 2006 Das Tanum System - ein alteuropäisches Vermessungssystem? (The Tanum System – Ancient Land Survey in Europe) , Forschungskreis Externsteine, 2007 Der Osnabrücker Bodenhimmel (The Hermetic Planisphere at Osnabrück) , Forschungskreis Externsteine, 2008.

[2] Andis Kaulins, The Phaistos Disc: Hieroglyphic Greek with Euclidean Dimensions: The 'Lost Proof' of Parallel Lines , Darmstadt, 1980, p. 18.

[11] The Phaistos Disk In Ancient Greek, Syllabic Script , LexiLine.com , http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi164.htm .

[14] Gay Robins & Charles Shute, The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus: an ancient Egyptian text , British Museum Press, London, 1987, reprinted 1990, 1998. A. Henry Rhind was a Scottish lawyer who first acquired the papyrus in the 1850's . See http://www.amazon.co.uk/Rhind-Mathematical-Papyrus-Ancient-Egyptian/dp/0714109444. See also http://www.jstor.org/pss/2299251.

[16] Nikolai Lobachevsky , Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Ivanovich_Lobachevsky.

[17] Edward Kasner and James Roy Newman, Mathematics and the Imagination ( with drawings by Rufus Isaacs), New York, Simon & Schuster, 1940/1967, pp. 136-137 (this drawing is our adaptation) http://www.amazon.com/Mathematics-Imagination-Edward-Kasner/dp/0486417034 .

[19] See D. E. Joyce, Euclid's Elements http://aleph0.clarku.edu/

[21] Criminal case 482/04, the State of Israel v. Oded Golan and others. one of the biggest forgery scandals ever in the history of archaeology . [MSN] Israel http://msn-list.te.verweg.com/2008-April/009736.html.

[22] Michael D. Coe, Breaking the Maya Code , London, Thames &Hudson, 1992, ISBN 0500050619 http://www.amazon.com/Breaking-Maya-Code-Michael-Coe/dp/0500281335.

[23] J. J. Gelb (assisted by R. M. Whiting), Methods of Decipherment , Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society , 1975, No. 2, pp. 97-104, quoted in Andis Kaulins, The Phaistos Disc: Hieroglyphic Greek with Euclidean Dimensions: The 'Lost Proof' of Parallel Lines , Darmstadt, 1980, pp. 8-11.

[26] Harald Haarmann, Universalgeschichte der Schrift , Campus Verlag: Frankfurt and New York, 1991, Sonderausgabe 1998, Parkland Verlag, Cologne, p. 374, providing the reading (in German): " Seinem Herrn Inshushinak, dem Menschenbildner (?), 2. habe ich Shilhak-Inshushinak, 3. der Statthalter von Susa, 4. der König des Landes Elam, 5. der Shempishhukische, 6. eine Säule (?) aus Kupfer (und) Zedernholz geweiht. "