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Junkers Ju 88C

Junkers Ju 88C

Junkers Ju 88C

The C-series was the first version of the Ju 88 to be produced as a fighter aircraft. Work on converting the Ju 88 into a fighter began with the seventh prototype in 1938. This involved replacing the glazed nose of the bomber with a solid nose containing fixed forward firing guns. The resulting aircraft could match the speed of the Bf 110, with three times the range of that aircraft, but production did not become a priority until 1943, by which time the C-series had been replaced by more modern versions.

C-1 and C-3

The C-1 and C-3 were planned versions powered by BMW 801 radial engines. These were in short supply, as they were used in the Fw 190A, so neither of these models entered production.

C-2

As a result the first production fighter version was the C-2. This was powered by two 1,200hp Jumo 211B or G engines, and were based on the Ju 88A-1 bomber, featuring the same short span wings as that aircraft. They carried three MG 17s and one 20mm MG FF in the solid nose. They could also carry 1,100lbs of bombs in the internal bomb bays. These aircraft were used by I./NJG 2 and carried out intruder mission over Britain during most of 1941.

C-4

The C-4 was a fighter variant of the A-5, featuring the wider wings introduced in that aircraft. It carried the same four forward guns as the C-2, was powered by two Jumo 221G or 221F engines, and carried extra armour plating for the crew. The C-4 joined I./NJG 2 in time to take part in the operations against Britain. Production was still limited, and the Bf 110 was preferred in both the heavy fighter and night fighter roles.

C-5

Ten C-5s were produced, powered by BMW 801A engines. These were used as research aircraft. The main innovation introduced with the C-5 was the replacement of the ventral gondola with a weapons pod that could carry two 7.92mm machine guns, mounted under the front bomb bay. The BMW engines improved the top speed of the aircraft to 354mph.

C-6

The C-6 appeared in early 1942. It was based on the improved A-4, and was powered by 1,400hp Jumo 211J-1 or J-2 engines. It carried the same forward firepower as the C-4, along with rear firing dorsal guns and ventral guns. The rear firing ventral gun could be replaced by more forward firing cannon. Production was still limited, but this variant saw wider service, equipping night fighter units and special Zerstörer staffeln in bomber units. The C-6 had a top speed of 310mph, significantly down on the BMW powered aircraft.

A number of Ju 88C-6s were equipped with early radar equipment from late in 1942. Early aircraft used the FuG 202 Lichtenstein BCradar set, followed by its mass production version, the FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1. Later the more advanced FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 radar was used. The C-6 was the first version of the Ju 88 to be an important night fighter, but it was still second to the Bf 110.

C-7

The C-7 did not enter full production. Various sources describe it as powered by either the Jumo 211J or BMW 810D engines, and being with or without radar. The only common feature of the different reports is that the C-7 was a more streamlined aircraft than earlier C-series aircraft. Production moved onto the R series, powered by BMW engines.

Introduction - Bomber - Fighter - Ju 88A - Ju 88B - Ju 88C - Ju 88D - Ju 88G - Ju 88H - Ju 88P - Ju 88R - Ju 88S - Ju 88T


Revell Junkers Ju-88C-6 Z/N 1:72


Review by Geoff Coughlin (June 2013)
Price: around £16.99 (GBP)

Our thanks to Revell for supplying our review sample. Revell model kits are available from all good toy and model retailers. For further information visit www.revell.eu or email [email protected]

Here’s some useful reference for you…


Ju 88 vart utvikla for å imøtekoma ein spesifikasjon frå det tyske luftfartsministeriet for ein ny «Schnellbomber» som skulle kunna fly i ein fart på 500 km/t med ein bombelast på opptil 800 kg. Den fyrste prototypen Ju 88 V1 flaug fyrste gong 21. desember 1936, utstyrt med to Daimler-Benz DB 600Aa motorar. Den eandre prototypen V2 introduserte dei ringformede radiatorane, og V3 bytte ut DB 600-motorane med to Junkers Jumo 211A.

Med Ju 88 V4 vart mannskapkabinen endra til den standarden som kjenneteikna den første produksjonsserien. V5 vart brukt til å setja verdsrekord for distansen 1 000 km med ei nyttelast på 2 000 kg den 9. mars 1939, med ein gjennomsnittsfart på 517 km/t. Fleire følgjande prototypar introduserte fleire endringar, og i 1939 vart eit pre-produksjonsserie under nemninga Ju 88A-0, som vart klarert for ein bombelast på 2 400 kg, sett under evaluering.

Dei første Ju 88A bombefly vart operative ved Luftwaffe i august 1939, og sjølv om produksjonen var treig til å byrja med,, skulle A-serien utgjera over halvparten av alle Ju 88 som vart produsert. Ju 88B vart bara bygd i eit lite pre-produksjonsserie, men skulle verta utgangspunktet for utviklinga av Ju 188. Ju 88S var den siste av bombeflyvariantane som vart produsert.

Ju 88C vart opphavleg utvikla som ein «Zerstörer», eit tungt jagarfly i same klasse som Messerschmitt Bf 110, men fekk ei viktig rolle som nattjager, og over 3 200 fly av denne varianten vart produsert. Ju 88G, som òg var ein nattjager, var ein videreutvikling av Ju 88C, men produksjonen kom seint i gang og berre 800 fly vart produsert.

Ju 88P var eit angrepsfly utstyrt med ein eller to panservernskanonar i gondolar under buken for bruk mot stridsvognar, og Ju 88D, Ju 88H og Ju 88T var rekognoseringsvarianter.


Junkers Ju 88

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Zitrex #1 Posted 19 December 2011 - 06:22 PM

Junkers Ju 88


Junkers Ju 88 - German twin-engine plane from World War II. He was one of the most versatile aircraft of that conflict, competing in this category of aircraft de Havilland Mosquito (hence the name, the German Mosquito "). Designed as a fast bomber was unrivaled in the attacks of small height and shallow dive. He could also serve as a night fighter, torpedo bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. The speed, ceiling, bombs and weapons-lifting capacity exceeded the standard on-board the German Heinkel He tactical bomber 111th


Ju88D cockpit

-- Specifications (Junkers Ju 88) --

  • Ju 88A-1: 2 x Jumo 211B-1
  • Ju 88A-4: 2 x Jumo 211 J
  • Ju 88A-1: 2x 1200 hp
  • Ju 88A-4: 2x 1340 hp
  • Wingspan 18.4 m
  • Length 14.35 m
  • Height 5.33 m
  • Wing area 54.5

  • Custom 7257 kg
  • Take-off 10705 kg
  • Top speed 450 km / h
  • Ceiling 8,200 m
  • Range 1800 km
  • 2x MG 81 7.92 mm caliber,
  • 1x cal MG 131 13 mm,
  • 1-2x MG 81,
  • the load of bombs weighing up to 1985 kg

History of construction

In 1935 the Third Reich aviation ministry on the project Kampfzerstörera thought likely to function both as a bomber, bomber, attack and reconnaissance aircraft. Therefore, measures have been taken to develop the technical conditions for fast bomber that could fly at 500 km / h and transfer to 800 kg bombs. Junkers make every effort to win the contest. Got to the point that it hired two American engineers who were pioneers in the field of airport paving work in the United States, even though the accused has already Junkers corrugated structures and created a few prototypes with smooth coverage. Until March 1936 presented two proposals - one of them took the form of Ju-88 with a single vertical stabilizer. Competitive solutions have been reported by Henschel (Hs 127) and Messerschmitt (Bf 162). For various reasons, both of these proposals have been eliminated in 1937.

Ju-88 V1 (prototype # 1) wearing civilian designation D-AQEN was flown by the chief pilot of Junkers, Kindermana, December 21, 1936. Trials were held in Dessau, but not officially informed about them and like the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 from 1939 a new model of aircraft has remained a mystery to British intelligence. Ju-88 V1 crashed during take-off flight, during which title to demonstrate its maximum speed. The next prototype - V2 still was equipped with a DB 600A engines, but another Ju-88 V3 already had Junkers Jumo own motors 211A and combat equipment, weapons and the ability to take 500 kg of bombs. Ju-88 V4 had seats for the entire four-person crew, a big glass nose, consisting of 20 flat parts, and lower the firing position with a machine gun MG 15th The final prototype was built from scratch, Ju-88 V5 (D-ATYU) improved to achieve a minimum of resistance and flown in April 1938. The plane was flight speed record set at 1000 km stretch of 2000 kg load amounting to 517 km / h in 1939. Honor its creation coincided with Ernst Zindelowi, with American designers to work on the project is not mentioned. In the sixth prototype (Ju-88 V6) using single legs with shock absorbers made of springs (not the oil, which was assembled in earlier versions). Shock caused by perfectly flat profile allowing you to trouble-free operation even under heavy load. Retractable landing gear was hydraulically, and the wheels rotated 90 degrees and the chambers were lying in a horizontal position, so you could have a much larger diameter. The use of low-pressure tires allowed to conduct operations with wet or sandy landing, although the aircraft weight has doubled compared to the prototype V1. Gondolas Motor Vehicle chassis covering the chamber became more slender and their resistance decreased. With time, chassis improvements require a small, but in 1940 it was a great engineering achievement.

Versions of the aircraft

  • Ju 88A on the eastern front, 25 September 1941
  • Ju-88A-1: span 18.37 m, the two engines Jumo 211B-1 with a capacity of 895 kW each
  • Ju-88A-2: engines Jumo 211 G-1 and rockets start shortening
  • Ju-88A-3: Two-aircraft school
  • Ju-88A-4: 20m span, engines Jumo 211J-1 or J-2 with a capacity of 1000 kW each
  • Ju-88A-5: identical to the version of the A-4, but with engines as in earlier versions
  • Ju-88A-6: similar to the version of the A-5, but with a bumper przeciwbalonowy ropes and knives in the firewall balloon
  • Ju-88A-6 / U: modified, stripped of his bumper przeciwbalonowy, and the crew was reduced to three persons, Hohentwiel mounted radar and dropped fuel tanks, used engines Jumo 211J
  • Ju-88A-7: similar to the version of the A-5, but with Jumo 211H motor and control system for the two pilots
  • Ju-88A-8 seater version with Jumo 211F engines and knives to cut ropes balloon
  • Ju-88A-9: version prepared for operations in desert conditions based on A-1 aircraft equipped with additional air filters, rescue package, sun visors, etc.
  • Ju-88A-10: version of the desert A-5
  • Ju-88A-11: The desert version of the A-4
  • Ju-88A-12: School-based aircraft devoid of weaponry, the lower nacelle and air brakes version of the A-4
  • Ju-9/Ju-88A-13: version A-4 suited to perform tasks with increased armor assault, 16 machine guns firing forward, and armed with fragmentation bombs
  • Ju-88A-14: development version of the model A-4 with a number of minor changes, often equipped with a 20 mm caliber gun for firing ships
  • Ju-88A-15: version seater with large wooden bomb bay that allows the removal of 3000 kg bombs
  • Ju-88A-16: unarmed version of the A-4 with two seats for the pilots
  • Ju-88A-17: Modified A-4 adapted to carry two torpedoes into the hull LT F5b air and with a special front cover under the nose.
  • Ju-88B-0: series of 10 reconnaissance aircraft, increased and extended cab, was used to drive various BMW engines, the result is a plane Ju 188th
  • Ju-88C-1: three-seater fighter heavy night based on the Ju-88A-1 to MG FF cannon caliber of 20 mm and three machine guns MG 17 7.92 mm caliber firing to the front
  • Ju-88C-2: as above, but with a full, without glazing nose
  • Ju-88C-3: BMW 801 driven by motors, but they were reserved for the Fw 190
  • Ju-88C-4: built from scratch a night fighter (not modified) based on the version of the A-4 with two MG FF cannons extra placed in a gondola under the fuselage and the ability to install up to 12 MG 81 machine guns in the trays under the wings
  • Ju-88C-5: BMW 801D2 engines with a capacity of 1298 kW each
  • Ju-88C-6: basic version fighter Jumo 211J engines fueled with different types of arms
  • Ju-88C-6b: equipped with radar and a new HF radio
  • Ju-88C-6c: with SN-2 radar, and many other sensors, some of the turbocharged engines Jumo 211TK, later versions of cannons firing Schrage Musik up,
  • Ju-88C-7a: in front of the bomb bay-mounted MG FF plot two
  • Ju-88C-7b: equivalent C-7a, but with hooks podskrzydłowymi bombings
  • Ju-88C-7c: BMW engines and heavy machine guns MG 151 in the nose.
  • Ju-88D-0: four-seater reconnaissance aircraft, engines Jumo 211 B-1, a large camera, without tap-bomb
  • Ju-88D-1: no build
  • Ju-88D-2: powered by Jumo 211B engines, 211G or 211H, external hooks up bombs or tanks
  • Ju-88D-3: desert version of D-1
  • Ju-88D-4: desert version of the D-2
  • Ju-88D-5: a standard system of three cameras.
  • Ju-88g-1: Night fighter based on Ju-88C-6c, but the rudder from the Ju 188, the BMW 801D engines, four machine guns podkadłubowe MG 151, SN-2 radar and other sensors, which significantly increased the burden on the crew and eventually led to the addition of the fourth airman
  • Ju-88G-1/3/5: not built
  • Ju-88g-4: made minor changes
  • Ju-88g-6a: BMW 801G engines, typically SN-2 radar that protects the rear hemisphere and, like the G-1 and G-4 Schrage Musik cannon
  • Ju-88g-6b: FuG 350 Naxos device placed on the roof of the fairing
  • Ju-88g-6c: Jumo 213A engines with a capacity of 1306 kW, Schrage Musik cannon moved just behind the cockpit
  • Ju-88g-7: a stronger Jumo 213E engines with a very wide blade propellers
  • Ju-88g-7a: multiple antennas SN-2
  • Ju-88g-7b: SN-3 radar and FuG 218 Neptune
  • Ju-88g-7c: radar operating in the centimeter wavelength range FuG 240 Berlin, speed 674 km / h.
  • Ju-88H-1: three-seater reconnaissance aircraft with extended fuselage
  • Ju-88H-2: a heavy three-seater fighter with six forward firing heavy machine guns MG 151
  • Ju-88H-3: an even more extended fuselage, engines Jumo 213A-12, designed to operate very long-range reconnaissance
  • Ju-88H-4: as H-3 plus large radar observation in the nose, two discarded fuel tanks, aircraft Führungmaschine team.
  • Ju-88P-1: two-or three-seater aircraft based on the Ju-88 A-4, armed with a gun PaK 40 75 mm caliber, led the pilot to aim using the standard viewfinder MG 81, hand guns loaded with four arrows at each raid, designed to destroy tanks
  • Ju-88P-2: two land BK 3.7 in the large gondola
  • Ju-88P-3: how P-2, but with increased armor
  • Ju-88P-4: a single cannon BK fifth
  • Ju-88S-0: BMW 801D engines, a single heavy caliber machine gun, 15mm in the cabin, up to 14 SD 65 bombs weighing 65 kg just in front of the bomb bay
  • Ju-88S-1: BMW 801G engines running charge its GM-1, could carry two bombs SD-1000 for external hooks
  • Ju-88S-2: SMW 801TJ engines with turbocharger, a very large wooden bomb chamber as in the Ju-88A-15
  • Ju-88S-0: Jumo 213 engines with GM-1 system.
  • Ju-88T-1: Three-reconnaissance version based on the Ju-88S-1, both the chamber occupied by the extra fuel tanks.

If you liked this article, click "+1" I will have a motivation to do more.
Sorry for my English.


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Junkers Ju-86

It would be fair to say that the Junkers Ju 86 was already obsolescent at the beginning of World War 11, and was accepted rather grudgingly by the Luftwaffe, which preferred the Heinkel He 111. It is all the more surprising, therefore, that within two years the type was operating in the reconnaissance role at higher altitudes than other Luftwaffe aircraft could reach.

Like the contemporary He 111, the Ju 86 was developed as an airliner and bomber, and five prototypes of each were ordered in 1934. The Junkers aircraft flew five months later, four months ahead of its competitor, and had been designed around the new Junkers Jumo 205 diesel engine.

Initial flight trials were disappointing, handling in particular being poor, and during subsequent modifications (which may have improved but not eradicated the problems) gun positions were installed. The third prototype was completed as a bomber and flew in January 1935, four months before the second prototype that was built as a commercial aircraft with 10 passenger seats. The fourth prototype, destined to become the first definitive Ju 86B airliner, flew in May 1935, followed three months later by the fifth prototype, the production prototype for the Ju 86A bomber.

Production at Junker’s Dessau factory began on both versions in late 1935 with an initial batch of 13 Ju 86A-0 and seven Ju 86B-0 pre-production aircraft, the first deliveries being made in February 1936. Bombers carried a crew of four and had a defensive armament of three machine-guns. The first export delivery was of a Ju 86B-0 to Swissair in April 1936 for night mail service, and the balance of six of these pre-production aircraft went to Lufthansa. In February 1937 a second aircraft went to Swissair under the export designation Ju 86Z-1, but when re-engined subsequently with BMW 132De radials it was redesignated Ju 86Z-2. Lufthansa also received an additional six aircraft in 1937 and these, powered by Jumo 205C diesel engines, had the designation Ju 86C-1.

Junkers had received some export orders for military models with alternative powerplants. Sweden acquired three Ju 86K-1 aircraft with 875 hp (652 W) Pratt & Whitney Hornet radial engines, and subsequently 16 more were built under licence by SAAB in Sweden and powered by either Swedish or Polish built Bristol Pegasus engines, both variants having the designation Ju 86K-13. Other versions of the Ju 86K were sold to Chile, Hungary and Portugal and the (wit Gnome-Rhone, Bristol Pegasus 111 or Swedish built Pegasus XII engines) had the respective designations Ju 86K-9, Ju 86K4 and Ju 86K-5. Hungary later assembled 66 more aircraft under licence, powered by licence-built Gnome-Rh6ne radials, and these had the designation Ju 86K-2.

Meanwhile, modifications to the military models resulted in the Jumo 205C-engined Ju 86D-1, five of which served with the Legion Condor during the Spanish Civil War, but the diesel engines were not standing up well to combat conditions and the aircraft had proved markedly inferior to the He 111. Disenchantment with the Ju 86D and the very poor serviceability of its engines led the Luftwaffe to make savage and sudden cuts in the Junkers programme and the diesel engines were dropped. Instead, the 810 hp (604 kW) BMW 132F radial was installed, resulting in the designation Ju 86E-1, this type being followed by the Ju 86E-2 with uprated 865 hp (645 kW) BMW 132Ns. Performance showed little improvement but reliability was greatly improved.

In 1938, in an attempt to improve pilot visibility, Junkers redesigned the entire nose section, bringing the pilot farther forward and shortening and lowering the nose to provide a fully glazed enclosure of more streamlined contours. The revisions were included on the final 40 production Ju 86E-2s under the designation Ju 86G-1, and manufacture of the Ju 86 ceased in 1938 with a total of about 390 aircraft (excluding licence- manufacture). Withdrawal of the type from Luftwaffe front-line service began in late 1938, but at various times during World War 11 it was found necessary to recall groups from training establishments, for instance in the relief of Stalingrad, but casualties were heavy. In spite of its unsuitability for front-line service, the Ju 86 still had one useful (and unique) role to fill for the Luftwaffe.

Junkers had been experimenting for some time with a high-altitude version of the Jumo diesel engine, together with pressure cabin design, and in September 1939 submitted proposals for a high-altitude reconnaissance version of the Ju 86. The go-ahead was given, and two Ju 86D airframes were converted, gun positions faired over (since no fighter would be able to reach the aircraft at its operation al altitude) and a two-seat pressure cabin was fitted. The prototypes flew in February and March 1940 as Ju 86P aircraft, and reached altitudes of more than 32,810 ft (10000 m). A third prototype with wingspan increased by 10 ft 2 in (3.10 m) reached 39,700 ft (12100 m), and the success of the trials earned an order for the conversion of 40 Ju 86Ds to Ju 86Ps. Two models were built the Ju 86P-1 bomber with a load of 2,205 lbs (1000 kg) and the Ju 86P-2 reconnaissance aircraft with three cameras. One of the prototypes flew a reconnaissance mission over the UK at 41,010 ft (12,500 m) in the summer of 1940 and was undetected, and other production models both followed this over the UK and USSR.

While standard Allied fighters were unable to reach them the Ju 86Ps remained unscathed, but in August 1942 a stripped-down Spitfire Mk V caught a Ju 86P at 37,000 ft (11275 m) over Egypt and after a chase to 42,000 ft (12800 m) shot it down. In an effort to gain more altitudes, a higher aspect ratio wing was designed, increasing the span to 104 ft 113/4 in (32.00 m), and uprated Jumo engines with four- blade propellers were installed. Two versions were again built, the Ju 86R-1 reconnaissance aircraft and the Ju 86R-2 bomber, each comprising conversions of the respective Ju 86P types. Only a few aircraft reached service, but during tests an altitude of 47,250 ft (14400 m) was reached. Further development of the Ju 86R-3 with 1,500 hp (1119 kW) supercharged Jumo 208s and designed to reach 52,500 ft (16000 m), and of a proposed Ju 186, with four Jumo 208s or two Jumo 218s (which were coupled Jumo 208s) was abandoned. Probably the last surviving Ju 86s were those with the Swedish Air Force which completed their service as transports in 1956. One is preserved in the Swedish Air Force museum.

The Junker Ju 86abl was the first bomber prototype. It was powered originally by Siemens SAM 9 radial engines. The Ju 86bal was the second prototype developed as a transport, with Junker Jumo 205C diesel engines. The Ju 86cb was the third prototype, developed as a bomber, similar to the Ju 86abl, but with Junkers Jumo 205C diesel engines.

The Ju 86V-4 was a production prototype for the commercial Ju 86B, and the Ju 86V-5 was the prototype for the Ju 86A bomber.

The Ju 86A-0/A-1 totalled 13 aircraft designed for use as bombers with the Luftwaffe.

Designed for civilian use. The Ju 86B was a transport produced for use by Swissair. These were delivered in April 1936. The Ju 86B-0 was made of up of seven pre-production aircraft for use by the Luftwaffe as transports.

Six transport aircraft for Lufthansa with Junker Jumo 205C diesel engines.

A bomber version with improved Junkers Jumo 205C engines, five of which served with Legion Condor during the Spanish Civil War, but the powerplant did not stand up well to combat conditions and the aircraft soon proved to be markedly inferior to the He 111.

The Luftwaffe’s dissatisfaction with the capability of the Ju 86D led to the development of the far more reliable Ju 86E-1 with BMW 132F radial engines. The Ju 86E-2 had BMW 132N engines.

Improvements introduced during production brought redesignation of the last 40 Ju 86E’s to be produced as Ju 86G-1 aircraft with round glazed noses. Production ended in 1938.

The Ju86K-1 was the designation given to the export aircraft for South Africa and Sweden. The Ju86K-2 was a Saab built (under licence) aircraft for export to Hungary (66 aircraft total). The Ju 86K-6, also Saab built (under licence) were exported to Chile and Portugal.

Similar to the Ju 86K-1 but with Bristol Pegasus Ill radial engines for Sweden (B 3A). Ju 86K-5 was similar to the Ju 86K-4 but with Swedish-built Pegasus XII engines (8 3B). The Ju 86K-13 was a Swedish-built bomber with Swedish and Polish-built Pegasus engines .

In 1939 two Ju 86D airframes were used for conversion as the Jumo 207A engined prototypes of a high altitude version with a two seat pressurised cabin. Successful trials led to two initial production versions, the Ju 86P-1 (bomber), and the Ju 86P-2 (reconnaissance) aircraft. The Ju 86P-2 had a ceiling of about 42,000 ft (12800 m) and in an effort to gain more altitude a high aspect ratio wing spanning 104 ft 11 3/4 in (32.00 m) was introduced to produce the Ju 86R-1 (reconnaissance) version and the Ju 86R-2 (bomber) version.

Specifications (Junkers Ju 86D-1)

Type: Four Seat Medium Bomber

Design: Junkers design team headed by Dipl-Ing Zindel

Manufacturer: Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenworke AG also built by Henschel, and built under licence by Saab, Sweden

Powerplant: Two 600 hp (447 kW) Junkers Jumo 205C-4 vertically opposed diesel engines.

Performance: Maximum speed 202 mph (325 km/h) at 9,840 ft (3000 m) cruising speed 177 mph (285 km/h) at 11,480 ft (3500 m) service ceiling 19,360 ft (5900 m).

Range: 932 miles (1500 km) with full bombload.

Weight: Empty equipped 11,354 lbs (5150 kg) with a maximum take-off weight of 18,078 lbs (8200 kg).

Dimensions: Span 73 ft 9 3/4 in (22.50 m) length 58 ft 7 1/2 in (17.87 M) height 16 ft 7 1/4 in (5.06 m) wing area 882.67 sq ft (82.00 sq m).

Armament: Three 7.92 mm (0.31 in) MG 15 manually aimed machine guns in nose, dorsal and ventral positions, plus an internal bombload of up to 1,764 lb (800 kg) carried internally.

Variants: Ju 86abl, Ju 86bal, Ju 86cb, Ju 86V-4, Ju 86V-5, Ju 86A-0, Ju 86B (commercial aircraft built for civilian use by Swissair), Ju 86B-0 (seven pre-production transports), Ju 86C-1, Ju 86D-1, (bomber) Ju 86E-1/E-2, Ju 86G-1, Ju 86K-4/K-5, Ju 86K-13, Ju 86K-1 (export variant for South Africa and Sweden), Ju 86K-2 (exported to Hungary by Saab), Ju 86K-6 (exported to Chile and Portugal by Saab), Ju 86P-1/P-2. Development of the Ju 86R-3 with super charger Jumo 208 engines and of the proposed Ju 186 four engine high altitude bomber based on the Ju 86 were abandoned. A six engined Ju 286 high altitude bomber did not progress beyond the initial planning stage.

History: First flight (Ju86V-1) 4 November 1934 (V-5 bomber prototype) January 1936 (production D-1) late 1936 (P-series prototype) February 1940.


Junkers Ju 88

Die Junkers Ju 88 is 'n veeldoelige vliegtuig wat onder andere as bomwerper en nagvegter deur die Luftwaffe gebruik is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Dit was ook gebruik vir lae ondersteuning, verkenning en as torpedodraer. Dit was oorspronklik ontwerp as 'n hoëspoed bomwerper en word soms beskryf as die Duitse Mosquito.

Die vliegtuig het ontstaan na aanleiding van 'n spesifikasie uitgereik deur die ReichsLuftMinisterium (RLM) in 1937. Die eerste prototipe (D-AQEN) het sy nooiensvlug op 21 Desember 1936 voltooi. Dit was toegerus met twee 1,000 perdekrag DB 600A inlynenjins. Die tweede prototipe was in wese dieselfde maar die derde was toegerus met Jumo 211A enjins wat later die hoofenjin sou bly. Die kenmerkende multipaneel glinster neus het verskyn met die vierde prototipe.

'n Klompie Ju 88A-0's is geproduseer gedurende die somer van 1939 en produksie van Ju-88A-1 het begin in September. Die A-modelle is uitgerol sonder enige probleme tot by A-17. Dit het verskeie variante ingesluit duikbomwerpers, skeepsaanvalle, verkenning en opleidingsmodelle. Die mees volopste vliegtuig van die reeks was die A-4 wat in Afrika en Europa gebruik is. Operasionele ondervinding wat tydens die Slag om Brittanje opgedoen is, is teruggeploeg in model A-4. Die vlerke was langer, nuwe Jumo 211J enjins, groter bomvrag en verdedigende bewapening was toegevoeg. Twintig Ju 88A-4 was verskaf aan Finland en 'n aantal aan die Italiaanse Lugmag.

Die Ju 88B was ontwikkel voor die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en het 'n ander ontwikkelings pad geloop om eindelik as die Junkers Ju 188 te verskyn.

Die volgende belangrike ontwikkeling was die verskyning van die Ju-88C vegvliegtuig reeks. Hulle was toegerus met 'n soliede neus wat 'n aantal kanonne en masjiengewere gehuisves het. Hulle was ook toegerus met Jumo 211 of BMW 801 enjins. Die Ju-88C-O het sy nooiensvlug voltooi in Julie 1939.

Die Ju-88D was ontwikkel uit die A-4 as 'n strategiese verkenningsvliegtuig. Daar was meer as 1,800 van die Ju-88D vervaardig.

Die volgende model reeks wat verskyn het was die Ju-88S, 'n bomwerper reeks. Die Ju-88S-1 was aangedryf deur die BMW 801G (1,700 perdekrag) sterenjin, die Ju-88S-1 deur die BMW 801TJ (1,810 perdekrag) stermotor en die Ju-88S-3 deur die Jumo 213E-1 (1,750 perdekrag) enjin. Die Ju-88S se neus was ook kleiner en meer gerond. Hulle het ook minder wapens gedra met 'n kleiner bomvrag. Die werkverrigting was egter baie beter as die reekse A en D.

Die Ju-88T-1 en Ju-88T-3 was ontwerp vir fotoverkenning en was afgelei van die S-1 en S-3.

Daar was 10,700 eenhede van die bomwerper en verkennings weergawes gebou net oor die 60% van die totale produksie.

Besonderhede van die Junkers Ju 88A-4:
Item Statistiek
Aantal motors 2
Tipe motor Skroef
Vervaardiger Junkers Jumo 211J V-tipe
Kraglewering per motor 1 340 perdekrag
Vlerkspan 20,8 m
Lengte 14,40 m
Hoogte 4,85 m
Maks. opstygmassa 14 000 kg
Maks. snelheid 433 km/h op 4 500 m
Operasionele hoogte 8 200 m
Togafstand 1 790 km
Bewapening Nege 7.9mm MG 81 masjiengewere:

twee in neus, een voor vlieënier,
twee agter in kajuit, twee voor in kajuit
en twee in skiettoring onder neus


AVIÕES MILITARES

O desenvolvimento dos projetos da Junkers, estavam a cargo do seu projetista chefe Ernst Zindel, tendo sido desenvolvidos em paralelo a partir do mesmo estudo. Os dois desenhos eram quase idênticos, diferindo somente na empenagem, que no Ju 85 usava estabilizadores verticais e lemes duplos e no Ju 88 uma única aleta vertical e superfícies horizontais convencionais.

Ao mesmo tempo, apresentaram uma segunda versão de cada um como Ju 85B e Ju 88B, novamente semelhantes aos desenhos originais, mas com uma cabina e fuselagem frontal modificada, com a forma de ovo , envidraçada, uma única abóbada que começava no nariz, curvava para cima e para baixo sob o cockpit, e terminava na posição traseira com uma arma dorsal, e outra ventral dando à nova aeronave o perfil de um girino, uma configuração semelhante a que viria a ser adotada no posterior Junkers Ju 188.

Ju 88A-0
O Ju 88 foi o preferido sobre o Ju 85, ao mesmo tempo que a cabina apresentada para o Ju 88B era considerada para a época demasiado radical optando-se pela do Ju 88A, mais simples com um nariz envidraçado escalonado e uma cúpula em forma de estufa elevada (para melhorar a visibilidade) e emoldurada.

As nacelas nos motores tinham uma configuração semelhante as das adotadas por motores radiais mas mais alongadas para a frente do bordo de ataque das asas. Tal resultava não dos motores mas no seu sistemas de arrefecimento baseado em radiadores anulares colocados à frente de cada motor, imediatamente atrás de cada hélice e com entradas de ar laterais às nacelas semelhantes às usadas para os turbocompressores (esta confuguração característica seria usada em posteriores aeronaves, como o Arado Ar 240 , o Heinkel He 177 , ou o Heinkel He 219).

O primeiro voo foi feito pelo protótipo Ju 88V-1, (D-AQEN), em dezembro de 1936, que após alguns voos acabaria por ser destruido num acidente. Porém, logo depois, em abril de 1937 o V-2 ficaria disponivel para testes, durante os quais atingiria a velocidade de 580 km/h, com Hermann Göring em extase por ter finalmente conseguido o seu Schnellbomber (bombardeiro de alta velocidade) . O Ju 88V-3, o primeiro equipado com motores Jumo 211A, ficaria disponivel em setembro de 1937, com uma cabina amplamente redesenhada e já com a caracteristica gôndola a estibordo por baixo do nariz onde um artilheiro deitado de bruços manobrava uma metralhadora MG15de 7,92mm.

O quarto protótipo, o Ju 88 V4, teve o nariz redesenhado, na forma de uma cupula formada por paineis planos transparentes, aerodinâmicamente modelado à semelhança do seu antecessor, Dornier Do 17 (forma definitiva dos futuros bombardeiros de produção), e a tripulação foi aumentada para quatro. O numero de armas defensivas era pequeno, porque ainda se mantinha a crença de que a sua elevada velocidade era suficiente para fugir à ameaça dos caças inimigos.

Ju 88A-5
O quinto protótipo estabeleceu num circuito fechado de 1.000 km, com uma carga útil de 2000kg, uma velocidade média de 517 km/h em março de 1939, no entanto quando Ernst Udet conseguiu que fossem adicionadas ao Ju 88 características de bombardeiro de mergulho (protótipos V-4, V-5 e V-6) a velocidade máxima caiu para os 450 km/h.
Ju 88A-4
No entanto a produção em massa do Ju 88A-1 foi, inicialmente, drasticamente retardada por problemas de desenvolvimento, e embora tenha sido planeada a sua entrada ao serviço ainda em 1938, no primeiro dia da invasão da Polonia em setembro de 1939 apenas um esquadrão de 12 aeronaves estava operacional.

Com a resolução progressiva dos problemas de desenvolvimento e produção iniciais começaram a sair de produção sub variantes sucessivas incorporando melhorias e adaptações a diferentes funções. Os A-2 podiam ser equipados com foguetes auxiliares de descolagem nas asas, e os A-3 foram providos de controlos duplos para instrução de voo. A versão A-4, surgida em meados de 1941, teria melhorias e modificações mais consideráveis tornando-a a base de todas as aeronaves da serie A seguintes. Projetado em torno do novo e mais poderoso motor Jumo 211J de 1400cv, o Ju 88A-4 tinha uma envergadura aumentada e asas reforçadas para suportarem maiores cargas.

Junkers Ju 88A-4
Antes disso, devido aos problemas na produção do motor Jumo 211J fora interinamente produzida a serie A-5, que incluía todas as melhorias estruturais do A-4, mas mantinha os motores anteriores. Estas aeronaves seriam intensivamente usadas durante a B atalha da Grã-Bretanha , uma vez que em 1940, a indústria da aviação alemã fora capaz de aumentar extraordinariamente a produção de aeronaves, produzindo 2852 bombardeiros (1816 Junkers Ju 88A, 756 Heinkel He 111, 260 Dornier Do 17 e 20 Dornier Do 217), um aumento de quase quatro vezes em comparação com a produção de 1939, com apenas 737 aeronaves (incluindo apenas 79 Ju 88A).

Em 1940 durante a Batalha da Grã-Bretanha, o Ju 88 teve melhor comportamento que a maioria dos restantes bombardeiros alemães, mas a experiência de guerra expôs uma série de deficiências que se tornaram evidentes em 9 de outubro de 1939, quando um Ju 88 teve a honra duvidosa de se tornar a primeira vítima dos caças da RAF. Era, na altura, o melhor bombardeiro alemão, mas sem uma escolta de caças, sofria grandes perdas durante as missões conduzidas a partir de bases na Noruega. Na terceira semana da guerra, quatro Ju 88A-1 atacaram navios de guerra britânicos em Scapa Flow, mas não causaram danos importantes.


Junkers Ju 88C - History

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(All prices in U.S. Dollars)

Manufacturer: Special Hobby
Stock Number: SPH 48177
Scale: 1/48
View all products of type "Ju-88"

This model kit requires assembly. Cement, paint and other construction materials not included unless specifically stated in the description.

Please Note: Special Hobby models are limited run kits which consist of plastic, resin and metal parts. For intermediate to advanced modelers only, they will require extra work to build successfully.

The Junkers Ju 88 was a German World War II Luftwaffe twin-engined multirole combat aircraft. Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke (JFM) designed the plane in the mid-1930s as a so-called Schnellbomber 'fast bomber' that would be too fast for fighters of its era to intercept. C-4 Heavy fighter, reconnaissance variant, based on A-5.


Junkers Ju 88C-6 Nightfighter - 1/72 kit

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The original:
The Ju 88 was initially designed as a fast bomber with long range capability. Awarding a contract for a new Attack Aircraft the RLM (Imperial Aviation Ministry) decided in favour of the Ju 88, which only needed slight modification in order to fulfil this role. Instead of the glazed nose section a new flat metal nose was fitted which housed three MG17's and either one MG FF or an MG 151/20. As a substitute for the Bf 110 Attack Aircraft a Night Fighter version based on the Ju 88C was introduced and entered service as the Ju 88C-6. When the first night surveillance equipment - FuG 202 Lichtenstein - came into service this was also fitted to the Ju 88C-6. By the end of the War and Including the Ju 88C Night Fighter version, a total of 3964 Ju 88 Night and Attack fighters were manufactured.

The model:
- Both the Ju 88C-6Z or the N version can be built
- MG Nose Segment
- Radar Antennas
- Detailed Surfaces, Recessed Panel Joints
- Super Detailed Cockpit
- Fully Detailed Pilots Seat
- Radio Operators Console
- Fully detailed Instrument Panel
- Belly Gondola with MG
- Separate Ailerons and Flaps
- Rotating Propeller
- 2 Flash Hiders
- Rear Cockpit Glazing with MG's for the C-6Z or C-6N

- Authentic decal set for following versions:
- Junkers Ju 88C-6 of Stab. IV./NJG 5 at Orel, Soviet Union, Spring 1943 Personal Mount of Major Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein
- Junkers Ju 88C-6 of 6./ KG(Z) 3 Blitzgeschwader Poltawa, Soviet Union, April 1943