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Paul von Rennenkampf

Paul von Rennenkampf

Paul von Rennenkampf was born in 1854. He joined the Russian Army at 19 and six years later was sent to the Nikolaevsky Military Academy. After graduating in 1882 he was appointed to the General Staff and by 1900 had reached the rank of major-general.

Rennenkampf commanded a cavalry unit during the Boxer Rising (1900) and was responsible for the capture of Tsitsihar and Kirin. He also took part in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) but was criticised for his campaign in north-eastern Korea and was judged by The Times correspondent reporting the conflict as "a poor leader of men". After the Battle of Mukden in 1905, General Alexander Samsonov accused Rennenkampf of letting him down during the fighting and the two men came to blows.

After the Russo-Japanese War Rennenkampf regained some of his reputation when dealing with revolutionaries in Siberia. After this he was appointed Chief-of-Staff of the Vilno Military District.

On the outbreak of the First World War, Rennenkampf was given command of the Russian First Army for the invasion of East Prussia. His behaviour during the Battle of Tannenberg resulted in some members of the military high command trying to have him removed from office.

Rennenkampf was also criticised for his failure at the Battle of Lodz in November, 1914. This time he was dismissed and Rennenkampf retired to the Black Sea coast. Paul von Rennenkampf was killed in 1918 after refusing to join Bolshevik forces during the Russian Civil War.


Mladosť a raná kariéra Upraviť

Paul von Rennenkampf sa narodil 29. apríla 1854 v Konuvere v Estónsku. Pochádzal z rodiny pobaltských Nemcov. Ako 19-ročný sa prihlásil do imperiálnej ruskej armády a navštevoval pechotnú školu pre Junkerov v Helsinkách. Svoju vojenskú kariéru začal s litovským 5. kopijnickým regimentom. Promoval na Nikolajevskej vojenskej akadémii v Petrohrade v roku 1882. Školu skončil s najlepšími výsledkami v triede. Ako mladý dôstojník bol zaradený k 14. armádnemu zboru, kde slúžil do roku 1884 a následne vo varšavskom vojenskom okruhu a kazanskom vojenskom okruhu, do roku 1886. Následne sa z neho stal starší pobočník na veliteľstve donských Kozákov, kde slúžil od marca 1888. Ako štábny dôstojník 2. armádneho zboru pôsobil od októbra 1889 a neskôr, v roku 1890, bol vymenovaný do funkcie náčelníka štábu pevnosti Osowiec. V tom istom roku bol povýšený na plukovníka. Od novembra 1899 bol počas služby vo funkcii náčelníka štábu Transbajkalského okruhu povýšený na generálmajora.

Rennenkampf velil štyrom pechotným práporom, dvom kozáckym stotinám a dvom konským batériám počas vzbury Boxerov v rokoch 1900-1901 a bol zodpovedaný za dobytie Čchi-čchi-cha-eru a Ťi-linu v Mandžusku, čím odstránil nebezpečenstvo hroziace Charbinu a východočínskej železnici. Počas tohto ťaženia bol vyznamenaný rádom sv. Juraja 4. a 3. stupňa za svoju vzornú službu.

Po skončení povstania dostal Rennenkampf ponuku veliť cárovej čestnej stráži, avšak na cárovo počudovanie túto ponuku odmietol. Následne bol poverený velením 1. samostatnej jazdeckej brigáde, kde pôsobil do roku 1904.

Rusko-japonská vojna Upraviť

Vo februári 1904, po vypuknutí rusko-japonskej vojny bol Rennenkampf vymenovaný za veliteľa zabajkalskej kozáckej divízie. V júli 1904 bol povýšený na generálplukovníka a v tom istom mesiaci bol zranený. Zo zranenia sa liečil až do konca bitky o Liao-jang. Počas bitky na rieke Ša-che velil divízii a neskôr počas bojov o Šen-jang velil zboru. Počas bojov o Šen-jang nahradil generála Michaila Aleksejeva na pozícii veliteľa ľavého krídla. Po sérii porážok, za ktoré zodpovedal jeho predchodca sa mu podarilo stabilizovať situáciu. Po bitke o Šen-jang obvinil generál Alexander Samsonov generála Rennenkampfa zo zlyhania, keď mu údajne neposkytol požadovanú pomoc počas bojov. V tomto incidente spočívajú korene sporu, ktorý sa mal stať obom generálom počas prvej svetovej vojny osudným.

Medzi vojnami Upraviť

Po rusko-japonskej vojne Rennenkampf čiastočne získal svoju reputáciu späť, za zásluhy pri potlačení revolucionárov na Sibíri. Za potlačenie vzniku Čitskej republiky bol v decembri 1910 povýšený do hodnosti armádneho generála. V roku 1912 získal čestný titul generála-adjutant (v cárskom Rusku generál-adjutant slúžil ako osobný poradca cára) a následne bol vymenovaný za náčelníka štábu Vilniuského vojenského okruhu.

Prvá svetová vojna Upraviť

Po začatí prvej svetovej vojny bolo Rennenkampfovi zverené velenie 1. ruskej armády, ktorá mala vpadnúť do Východného Pruska, postupujúc zo severovýchodu. Jeho správanie počas bitky pri Tannenbergu, konkrétne jeho zlyhanie kooperácie so Samsonovovou 2. armádou, vyústilo do veľkej kritiky jeho osobnosti od generála Jakova Žilinského, pričom niekoľko členov najvyššieho velenia sa ho pokúsilo odvolať z veliteľskej funkcie.

Po relatívne úspešnej bitke o Gumbinnen v polovici augusta 1914 nasledoval neúspech počas prvej bitky o Mazurské jazerá v tom istom mesiaci, ktorý prinútil ruské vojská stiahnuť sa z Východného Pruska. Ďalšia porážka v bitke o Lodž v novembri 1914 viedla k odvolaniu Rennenkampfa a obvineniam z neschopnosti a zrady (kvôli svojmu pôvodu). Rennenkampf rezignoval 6. októbra 1915. Po februárovej revolúcii v roku 1917 bol Ruskou dočasnou vládou uväznený v Petropavlovskej pevnosti v Petrohrade. Bol obvinený zo zločinnej činnosti počas vedenia bojov od roku 1914, vrátane sprenevery a neschopnosti veliť.

Smrť Upraviť

Po októbrovej revolúcii bol Rennenkampf oslobodený a presťahoval sa do Taganrogu na pobreží Azovského mora. Tam žil pod falošným priezviskom Mandusakis a vydával sa za gréckeho občana.

Napriek tomu jeho krytie bolo 16. marca 1918 prezradené a boľševici zistili jeho pravú totožnosť. Ponúkli mu veliteľskú pozíciu v Červenej armáde počas ruskej občianskej vojny, čo však Rennenkampf odmietol. Následne bol zatknutý a zanedlho, 1. apríla 1918, popravený na osobný príkaz Vladimira Antonova-Ovsejenka. Rennenkampfove osobné veci a umelecké predmety, ktoré získal počas Boxerského povstania sú v súčasnosti vystavené v Alferakiho paláci v Taganrogu.

  • Connaughton, R.M (1988). The War of the Rising Sun and the Tumbling Bear—A Military History of the Russo-Japanese War 1904–5, London, ISBN 0-415-00906-5
  • Jukes, Geoffry. The Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905. Osprey Essential Histories. (2002). ISBN 978-1-84176-446-7
  • Warner, Denis & Peggy. The Tide at Sunrise, A History of the Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905. (1975). ISBN 0-7146-5256-3

Zdroj Upraviť

Tento článok je čiastočný alebo úplný preklad článku Paul von Rennenkampf na anglickej Wikipédii.


ExecutedToday.com

On this date in 1918, General Paul von Rennenkampf dug his own grave by the side of the railway tracks near Taganrog, then was shot by the Bolsheviks for declining a promotion.

The Baltic German with the glorious Hungarian had spent a career in the tsarist officer corps he took part in the multinational suppression of China’s Boxer Rebellion, and then the entirely domestic suppression of the abortive 1905 revolution.

Less well did the motherland fare against the Japanese in 1904 (where Rennenkampf’s shin and Russia’s infantry were both shattered) or against history in the Great War (which saw Rennenkampf sacked for command failures in the Battle of Lodz).

Although it seems that the latter result was the consequence of political infighting moreso than verifiable incompetence, the man was still cooling his heels in forced retirement when the revolutions of 1917 arrived. Both the February and the October revolutionaries detained him for a time and then released him, finding insufficient interest in those weighty days in a cashiered sexagenarian no matter how backwards his political priors.

But the Bolsheviks found him interesting when they took over Taganrog, where Rennenkampf was parked. This was his wife’s home town, near the southern industrial center Rostov-on-Don — a place that would be intensely contested in the unfolding civil war between communist Red and tsarist White armies. Such moments entail a choice of sides, so when the Bolsheviks offered this veteran senior commander a role in the Red Army, it was understood to be an offer he couldn’t refuse. He refused it, with bold words that were patriotic but not prophetic.

I’m old. I have not much left to live, for the salvation of my life, I will not become a traitor and will not go against my own. Give me a well-armed army, and I will go against the Germans, but you have no army to lead this army would mean leading people to slaughter, I will not take this responsibility on myself.


Biography

Paul von Rennenkampf was born on 17 April 1854 in Konuvere, Governorate of Estonia, Russian Empire to a family of Baltic Germans, and in 1882 he graduated at the top of his class from Nikolaevsky Military Academy in the capital of St. Petersburg. In 1899 he was made a Major-General, and in 1900-1901 he led Imperial Russian Army troops in Manchuria during the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion. In 1904 he was wounded at the Battle of Motien Pass during the Russo-Japanese War, and after the 1905 Battle of Mukden he began a lifelong rivalry with general Alexander Samsonov, who accused him of not giving him assistance against the Imperial Japanese Army. During the 1905 Revolution he put down rebellions in Siberia and suppressed the Chita Republic, and he was nearly assassinated many times by rebels. In 1912 he took over the Vilno Military District, and at the start of World War I he took command of the Russian 1st Army during the invasion of East Prussia in the German Empire. He won the Battle of Gumbinnen on 20 August 1914, but at the 29 August Battle of Tannenberg the Russian army was destroyed with 100,000 losses and Samsonov shot himself. After the November 1914 Battle of Lodz he was dismissed, partly due to his ethnic background, which led to Russians accusing him of "treason". In 1917 he was arrested by the Russian Provisional Government for embezzlement and mismanagement, but after the October Revolution that same year he was set free. Later, the Bolsheviks offered to give him command of an army, but when he refused, Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko had him executed.


Paul von Rennenkampf Wiki, Biography, Net Worth, Age, Family, Facts and More

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BIOGRAPHY

Paul von Rennenkampf is a well known Celebrity. Paul was born on April 17, 1854 in Rapla County, Estland Governorate, Russian Empire..Paul is one of the famous and trending celeb who is popular for being a Celebrity. As of 2018 Paul von Rennenkampf is 63 years (age at death) years old. Paul von Rennenkampf is a member of famous Celebrity list.

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Details
Name Paul von Rennenkampf
Age (as of 2018) 63 years (age at death)
Profession Celebrity
Birth Date April 17, 1854
Birth Place Rapla County, Estland Governorate, Russian Empire
Nationality Rapla County

Paul von Rennenkampf Net Worth

Paul primary income source is Celebrity. Currently We don’t have enough information about his family, relationships,childhood etc. We will update soon.

Estimated Net Worth in 2019: $100K-$1M (Approx.)

Paul Age, Height & Weight

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Family & Relations

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Facts

  • Paul von Rennenkampf age is 63 years (age at death). as of 2018
  • Paul birthday is on April 17, 1854.
  • Zodiac sign: Aries.

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Age, Height & Measurements

Paul von Rennenkampf has been died on 63 years (age at death). Paul born under the Aries horoscope as Paul's birth date is April 17. Paul von Rennenkampf height 6 Feet 3 Inches (Approx) & weight 225 lbs (102 kg) (Approx.). Right now we don't know about body measurements. We will update in this article.

Height6 Feet 3 Inches (Approx)
Weight226 lbs (102.5 kg) (Approx)
Body Measurements
Eye ColorBlack
Hair ColorLight Brown
Dress SizeM
Shoe Size11.5 (US), 10.5 (UK), 46 (EU), 29 (CM)

Paul von Rennenkampf

Paul von Rennenkampf was born in 1854. He joined the Russian Army at 19 and six years later was sent to the Nikolaevsky Military Academy. After graduating in 1882 he was appointed to the General Staff and by 1900 had reached the rank of major-general.

Rennenkampf commanded a cavalry unit during the Boxer Rising (1900) and was responsible for the capture of Tsitsihar and Kirin. He also took part in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) but was criticised for his campaign in north-eastern Korea and was judged by The Times correspondent reporting the conflict as "a poor leader of men". After the Battle of Mukden in 1905, General Alexander Samsonov accused Rennenkampf of letting him down during the fighting and the two men came to blows.

After the Russo-Japanese War Rennenkampf regained some of his reputation when dealing with revolutionaries in Siberia. After this he was appointed Chief-of-Staff of the Vilno Military District.

On the outbreak of the First World War, Rennenkampf was given command of the Russian First Army for the invasion of East Prussia. His behaviour during the Battle of Tannenberg resulted in some members of the military high command trying to have him removed from office.

Rennenkampf was also criticised for his failure at the Battle of Lodz in November, 1914. This time he was dismissed and Rennenkampf retired to the Black Sea coast. Paul von Rennenkampf was killed in 1918 after refusing to join Bolshevik forces during the Russian Civil War.


The invasion

The Austro-Hungarian 1st Army under Viktor Dankl was moving in the north towards Lublin. Dankl struck and breifly drove back Aleksei Evert's Russian Fourth Army in what would be known as the Battle of Kraśnik. However, the Russians returned and mauled the 1st Army, capturing some 20,000 Austro-Hungarian troops. Dankl himself was killed during the fighting.

To the right of Dankl the Auffenberg's 4th Army, aiming at Cholm, drove back the Russian Fifth Army under Lavr Kornilov in the Battle of Komarów, capturing 20,000 prisoners and inflicting heavy casualties. However, a planned Austrian enveloping movement around the Russian army failed.

As the Russians were advancing along the northern front, the Austrian 3rd Army and Army Group Kovess made a simultaneous counterattack against Ivanov's left wing. Along the southern front Ivanov had the Russian Third Army under Paul von Rennenkampf and the Russian Eighth Army under the capable Aleksei Brusilov. Brusilov and Rennenkampf routed the Austro-Hungarians so thoroughly that even though poor roads necessitated that the Russians halt for two days, the Austrians could not regroup to halt the Russian drive. This attack became known as the Battle of Gnila Lipa.

With the entire 3rd Army and Kovess Group in full retreat, Conrad pulled forces away from northern front which he believed had been sufficiently put back. In fact the Russians north of Lemberg were a major threat. Ivanov ordered Kornilov's Fifth Army to attack and drove the Austrians back as they began to shift forces to the south in an engagement known as the Battle of Rava Ruska. The Austrian Second Army was quickly recalled from Serbia but it was too late and the entire Austrian front collapsed in Galicia and the Russians took control of Lemberg.


The German strategy

Ludendorff immediately concentrated six divisions against Samsonov’s advance, but this force was not as strong as the Russian Second Army, and would have made little headway on its own.

Here Ludendorff and Hindenberg took a calculated risk, and withdrew the rest of the German troops, aside from a light cavalry screen, from the Rennenkampf front, sending them against Samsonov’s wing.

Reproduction of a 1914 photograph of Paul von Hindenburg. Credit: Nicola Perscheid (1864-1930). Restoration by Adam Cuerden / Commons.

By engaging Rennenkampf’s forces with cavalry troops in the north, the Germans hoped to delay the ability of the First Army to reinforce Samsonov’s Second Army in the southwest.

Once the armies were separated, Samsonov’s flanks would be crushed quickly, and the Russian centre completely surrounded. German forces would encircle the Russian Second Army.

The Russian generals were operating with insufficient communication lines. There was a particular problem imminently prior to the battle, as messages had to circumvent the great Masurian Lakes.

The Germans had also cracked Russian codes prior to the war, and while the Russians were aware of this, and there were some provisional new codes in place, new codebooks had not been fully distributed.

Zhilinskiy, the commander and co-ordinator of both Rennenkampf and Samsonov’s armies, and Rennenkampf each had a codebook, but Samsonov did not.

German infantry on the march in East Prussia. Credit: Bundesarchiv / Commons.

Many Russian messages were sent unencrypted, in the hope that they would not be intercepted, which allowed Ludendorff and Hindenberg to advance much more aggressively, as they frequently received intelligence on the messages that were sent between Rennenkampf and Samsonov.

Samsonov, unaware either of the German plan or that Rennenkampf had decided to pause, advanced unwittingly into the German trap.


Bibliografia

  • Connaughton, R.M (1988). The War of the Rising Sun and the Tumbling Bear𠅊 Military History of the Russo-Japanese War 1904𠄵, London, ISBN 0-415-00906-5
  • Jukes, Geoffry. The Russo-Japanese War 1904�. Osprey Essential Histories. (2002). ISBN 978-1-84176-446-7
  • Warner, Denis & Peggy. The Tide at Sunrise, A History of the Russo-Japanese War 1904�. (1975). ISBN 0-7146-5256-3

Zdroj