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Aditya Chakravarty

Aditya Chakravarty


Shami Chakrabarti

Sharmishta "Shami" Chakrabarti, Baroness Chakrabarti, CBE , PC (born 16 June 1969) is a British Labour Party politician, barrister, and human rights activist. She served as the director of Liberty, an advocacy group which promotes civil liberties and human rights, from 2003 to 2016. From 2016 to 2020, she served as Shadow Attorney General for England and Wales.

Chakrabarti was born in the London Borough of Harrow, and studied Law at the London School of Economics. After graduating, she was called to the Bar and then worked as an in-house legal counsel for the Home Office.

When she was the director of Liberty, she campaigned against "excessive" anti-terror legislation. In this role, she frequently contributed to BBC Radio 4 and various newspapers, and was described in The Times as "probably the most effective public affairs lobbyist of the past 20 years". She was one of the panel members of the Leveson Inquiry into press standards throughout 2011 and 2012. Between 2014 and 2017, she served as Chancellor of the University of Essex. [3]

In August 2016, Chakrabarti was made a life peer in the Prime Minister's Resignation Honours.


Aditya Chakravarty - History

Chakravarty was known for speaking out against the dearth of women in science and openly discussed the double burden females faced. While men in their thirties only had to worry about their career, women had the additional task of balancing family life and their work commitments. She managed to do a stellar job managing both, and became an accomplished academician while embracing motherhood in 2000 when her daughter, Krithi, was born.

Chakravarty was known for speaking out against the dearth of women in science and openly discussed the double burden females faced.

Achievements

Her work received widespread acclaim and she was the recipient of several prizes and honors. Chakravarty’s earliest award came in 1996 when she received the Medal for Young Scientists from the Indian National Science Academy (INSA), a leading society for science and technology in India. From 1996 to 2003, she served as a member of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, an institute dedicated to scientific research and excellence. In 1999 she bagged two awards, the B.M. Birla Science Award and Anil Kumar Bose Memorial Award from the Indian National Science Academy. In 2003, she received the Swarnajayanti Fellowship from the Department of Science and Technology and in 2006 a Fellowship from Indian Academy of Sciences. She also received the prestigious Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in 2009 and was an Associate Member of the Centre for Computational Material Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore.

Death and Legacy

Unfortunately, we lost Dr Chakravarty too early, after a long and valiant fight against cancer. Despite the fact that she was diagnosed in 2013, she kept authoring and publishing articles up till her death, a testament to her indomitable will. She even received a Fellowship in 2015 from INSA, an insight to the brilliant mind she had right till the end. Charusita continued to take classes on days when she well enough and made it a point to make time for her friends and family, despite the side-effects of the treatments and the horrific pain. She passed away in 2016, at the age of fifty-one.

While we lost her too soon, she displayed a kind of genius that is hard to forget. Her work made her a brilliant academic and exemplary role model that prompted numerous women to cross the threshold and enter laboratories.

Her legacy lives on and her lasting impact on the scientific community is best elucidated by a Margaret Mead poem read at her funeral.

To the living, I am gone
To the sorrowful, I will never return
To the angry, I was cheated
But to the happy, I am at peace
And to the faithful, I have never left
I cannot be seen, but I can be heard
So as you stand upon a shore, gazing at a beautiful sea- remember me
As you look in awe at a mighty forest and its grand majesty – remember me
As you look upon a flower and admire its simplicity – remember me
Remember me in your heart, your thoughts, and your memories of the times we loved
The times we cried, the times we fought, the times we laughed
For if you always think of me, I will never be gone.


Recovering Elastic Properties From Rock Fragments

Dang, Son , Gupta, Ishank , Chakravarty, Aditya , Bhoumick, Pritesh , Taneja, Shantanu , Sondergeld , Carl , and Chandra Rai. "Recovering Elastic Properties From Rock Fragments." Petrophysics 58 (2017): 270–280.

Mechanical characterization of an isotropic rock requires the measurements of at least two elastic constants. Dynamic constants are obtained using ultrasonic techniques and static constants are obtained from the stress-strain response of the rock both techniques can be used at elevated pressures and temperatures. These methods typically involve the use of cylindrical plugs however, the existence of natural fractures or fissility of shale formations precludes the extraction of cores. The challenge is to improve reservoir characterization by measuring elastic properties using irregular, but ubiquitous smaller rock samples. We propose measuring two elastic parameters, i.e., Young's modulus and bulk modulus through nanoindentation and mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) experiments, respectively. With these two constants and the assumption of isotropy, all other isotropic elastic constants can be derived. The idea is to infer Young's modulus (Enano) using nanoindentation and estimate bulk modulus (KMICP) using MICP data neither measurement requires core plugs and can be carried out on irregularly shaped rock fragments. We assume the fragments are representative of the formation of interest confirmation comes from establishing statistics. We measured Woodford, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Wolfcamp, Bakken, Utica and Green River shale core samples. These values are compared to values obtained in ultrasonic-pulse transmission experiments. Ultrasonic values of K measured at 5,000 psi confining pressure agree well with the values of KMICP at 5,000 psi. Similarly, Enano shows a 1:1 correlation with ultrasonically derived Young's modulus at 5,000 psi confining pressure. At a confining pressure of 5,000 psi, the influence of cracks is reduced.

The ubiquitous use of hydraulic fracturing to stimulate unconventional reservoirs drives the need for improved methodologies to compute the mechanical properties of rock. Mineralogical variability (Rickman et al., 2008 2009 Passey et al., 2010) in shale should be considered in the decision of the placement of laterals. Ductility is a function of mineralogy, TOC richness and in-situ stress profile. Within a stimulation zone, where principle stresses are minimally varied, mineralogical variability directly affects elastic properties (Al-Tahini et al., 2006), brittleness and ductility (Bai, 2016): High concentrations of clay make shale more ductile, while the predominance of quartz is associated with brittleness. Jarvie et al., (2007) related brittleness directly to mineralogy.


Contents

Vikramaditya means "the sun of valour" (vikrama means "valour" and aditya means "sun"). He is also known as Vikrama, Bikramjit and Vikramarka (arka also means "sun"). Some legends describe him as a liberator of India from mlechchha invaders the invaders are identified as Shakas in most, and the king is known by the epithet Shakari (IAST: Śakāri "enemy of the Shakas"). [1]

Although Vikramaditya is mentioned in a few works dated to before the Gupta period (240–550 CE), portions (including Vikramaditya) may be later Gupta-era interpolations. [2] The earliest work to mention Vikramaditya was probably Brihatkatha, an Indian epic written between the first century BCE and the third century CE in the unattested Paisaci language. Its existence (and its mention of Vikramaditya) is confirmed only by adaptations in surviving works dating to the sixth century and later and testimonials by contemporary poets. Since there is no surviving copy of Brihatkatha, it is not known if it contained the Vikramaditya legends its post-Gupta adaptations, such as the Katha-Sarit-Sagara, may contain interpolations. [3]

Gaha Sattasai (or Gatha-Saptasati), a collection of poems attributed to the Satavahana king Hāla ( r . 20 – 24 CE ), mentions a king named Vikramaditya who gave away his wealth out of charity. However, many stanzas in this work are not common to its revisions and are apparent Gupta-period expansions. [4] The verse about Vikramaditya is similar to a phrase—Anekago-shatasahasra-hiranya-kotipradasya—found in Gupta inscriptions about Samudragupta and Chandragupta II (for example, the Pune and Riddhapur copper-plate inscriptions of Chandragupta's daughter, Prabhavatigupta) this phrase may have been a later, Gupta-era insertion in the work attributed to Hāla. [5]

The earliest uncontested mentions of Vikramaditya appear in sixth-century works: the biography of Vasubandhu by Paramartha (499–569) and Vasavadatta by Subandhu. [4] Paramaratha quotes a legend which mentions Ayodhya ("A-yu-ja") as the capital of king Vikramaditya ("Pi-ka-la-ma-a-chi-ta"). [6] According to this legend, the king gave 300,000 gold coins to the Samkhya scholar Vindhyavasa for defeating Vasubandhu's Buddhist teacher (Buddhamitra) in a philosophical debate. Vasubandhu then wrote Paramartha Saptati, illustrating deficiencies in Samkhya philosophy. Vikramaditya, pleased with Vasubandhu's arguments, gave him 300,000 gold coins as well. Vasubandhu later taught Buddhism to Prince Baladitya and converted the queen to Buddhism after the king's death. [7] According to Subandhu, Vikramaditya was a glorious memory by his time. [4]

In his Si-yu-ki, Xuanzang (c. 602 – c. 664 ) identifies Vikramaditya as the king of Shravasti. According to his account, the king (despite his treasurer's objections) ordered that 500,000 gold coins be distributed to the poor and gave a man 100,000 gold coins for putting him back on track during a wild boar hunt. Around the same time, a Buddhist monk known as Manoratha paid a barber 100,000 gold coins for shaving his head. Vikramaditya, who prided himself on his generosity, was embarrassed and arranged a debate between Manoratha and 100 non-Buddhist scholars. After Manoratha defeated 99 of the scholars, the king and other non-Buddhists shouted him down and humiliated him at the beginning of the last debate. Before his death, Manoratha wrote to his disciple Vasubandhu about the futility of debating biased, ignorant people. Shortly after Vikramaditya's death, Vasubandhu asked his successor, Baladitya, to organise another debate to avenge his mentor's humiliation. In this debate, Vasubandhu defeated 100 non-Buddhist scholars. [8] [9]

After the ninth century, a calendar era beginning in 57 BCE (now called the Vikrama Samvat) began to be associated with Vikramaditya some legends also associate the Shaka era (beginning in 78 CE) with him. When Persian scholar Al-Biruni (973–1048) visited India, he learned that the Indians used five eras: Sri Harsha, Vikramaditya (57 BCE), Shaka (78 CE), Vallabha and Gupta. The Vikramaditya era was used in southern and western India. Al-Biruni learned the following legend about the Shaka era:

A Shaka ruler invaded north-western India and oppressed the Hindus. According to one source, he was a Shudra from the Almanṣūra city according to another, he was a non-Hindu who came from the west. In 78 CE, the Hindu king Vikramaditya defeated him and killed him in the Karur region, located between Multan and the castle of Loni. The astronomers and other people started using this date as the beginning of a new era. [10]

Since there was a difference of over 130 years between the Vikramaditya era and the Shaka era, Al-Biruni concluded that their founders were two kings with the same name. The Vikramaditya era named after the first, and the Shaka era was associated with the defeat of the Shaka ruler by the second Vikramaditya. [10]

According to several later legends—particularly Jain legends—Vikramaditya established the 57 BCE era after he defeated the Shakas and was defeated in turn by Shalivahana, who established the 78 CE era. Both legends are historically inaccurate. There is a difference of 135 years between the beginning of the two eras, and Vikramaditya and Shalivahana could not have lived simultaneously. The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the ninth century. Earlier sources call this era by several names, including "Kṛṭa", "the era of the Malava tribe", or "Samvat" ("Era"). [11] [12] Scholars such as D. C. Sircar and D. R. Bhandarkar believe that the name of the era changed to Vikrama Samvat during the reign of Chandragupta II, who had adopted the title of "Vikramaditya" (see below). Alternative theories also exist, and Rudolf Hoernlé believed that it was Yashodharman who renamed the era Vikrama Samvat. [12] The earliest mention of the Shaka era as the Shalivahana era occurs in the 13th century, and may have been an attempt to remove the era's foreign association. [13]

Brihatkatha adaptations Edit

Kshemendra's Brihatkathamanjari and Somadeva's 11th-century Kathasaritsagara, both adaptations of Brihatkatha, contain a number of legends about Vikramaditya. Each legend has several fantasy stories within a story, illustrating his power.

The first legend mentions Vikramaditya's rivalry with the king of Pratishthana. In this version, that king is named Narasimha (not Shalivahana) and Vikramaditya's capital is Pataliputra (not Ujjain). According to the legend, Vikramaditya was an adversary of Narasimha who invaded Dakshinapatha and besieged Pratishthana he was defeated and forced to retreat. He then entered Pratishthana in disguise and won over a courtesan. Vikramaditya was her lover for some time before secretly returning to Pataliputra. Before his return, he left five golden statues which he had received from Kubera at the courtesan's house. If a limb of one of these miraculous statues was broken off and gifted to someone, the golden limb would grow back. Mourning the loss of her lover, the courtesan turned to charity known for her gifts of gold, she soon surpassed Narasimha in fame. Vikramaditya later returned to the courtesan's house, where Narasimha met and befriended him. Vikramaditya married the courtesan and brought her to Pataliputra. [14]

Book 12 (Shashankavati) contains the vetala panchavimshati legends, popularly known as Baital Pachisi. It is a collection of 25 stories in which the king tries to capture and hold a vetala who tells a puzzling tale which ends with a question. In addition to Kathasaritsagara, the collection appears in three other Sanskrit recensions, a number of Indian vernacular versions and several English translations from Sanskrit and Hindi it is the most popular of the Vikramaditya legends. [15] There are minor variations among the recensions see List of Vetala Tales. In Kshemendra, Somadeva and Śivadāsa's recensions, the king is named Trivikramasena in Kathasaritsagara, his capital is located at Pratishthana. [16] At the end of the story, the reader learns that he was formerly Vikramaditya. Later texts, such as the Sanskrit Vetala-Vikramaditya-Katha and the modern vernacular versions, identify the king as Vikramaditya of Ujjain. [17]

Book 18 (Vishamashila) contains another legend told by Naravahanadatta to an assembly of hermits in the ashram of a sage, Kashyapa. According to the legend, Indra and other devas told Shiva that the slain asuras were reborn as mlechchhas. Shiva then ordered his attendant, Malyavat, to be born in Ujjain as the prince of the Avanti kingdom and kill the mlechchhas. The deity appeared to the Avanti king Mahendraditya in a dream, telling him that a son would be born to his queen Saumyadarshana. He asked the king to name the child Vikramaditya, and told him that the prince would be known as "Vishamashila" because of his hostility to enemies. Malyavat was born as Vikramaditya when the prince grew up, Mahendraditya retired to Varanasi. Vikramaditya began a campaign to conquer a number of kingdoms and subdued vetalas, rakshasas and other demons. His general, Vikramashakti, conquered the Dakshinapatha in the south Madhyadesa in the central region Surashtra in the west, and the country east of the Ganges Vikramashakti also made the northern kingdom of Kashmira a tributary state of Vikramaditya. Virasena, the king of Sinhala, gave his daughter Madanalekha to Vikramaditya in marriage. The emperor also married three other women (Gunavati, Chandravati and Madanasundari) and Kalingasena, the princess of Kalinga. [18] [19]

The Brihatkathamanjari contains similar legends, with some variations Vikramaditya's general Vikramashakti defeated a number of mlechchhas, including Kambojas, Yavanas, Hunas, Barbaras, Tusharas and Persians. In Brihatkathamanjari and Kathasaritsagara, Malyavat is later born as Gunadhya (the author of Brihatkatha, on which these books are based). [20]

Rajatarangini Edit

Kalhana's 12th-century Rajatarangini mentions that Harsha Vikramaditya of Ujjayini defeated the Shakas. According to the chronicle Vikramaditya appointed his friend, the poet Matrigupta, ruler of Kashmir. After Vikramaditya's death, Matrigupta abdicated the throne in favour of Pravarasena. [21] According to D. C. Sircar, Kalhana confused the legendary Vikramaditya with the Vardhana Emperor Harshavardhana (c. 606 – c. 47 CE ) Madhusudana's 17th-century Bhavabodhini similarly confuses the two kings, and mentions that Harsha, the author of Ratnavali, had his capital at Ujjain. [22]

The Paramara kings, who ruled Malwa (including Ujjain) from the ninth to the fourteenth century, associated themselves with Vikramaditya and other legendary kings to justify their imperial claims. [23]

Simhasana Dvatrimsika Edit

Simhasana Dvatrimsika (popularly known as Singhasan Battisi) contains 32 folktales about Vikramaditya. In this collection of frame stories, the Paramara king Bhoja discovers the ancient throne of Vikramaditya after several centuries. The throne has 32 statues, who are actually apsaras who were turned into stone by a curse. When Bhoja tries to ascend the throne, one apsara comes to life and tells him to ascend the throne only if he is as magnanimous as Vikramaditya (as revealed by her tale). This leads to 32 attempts by Bhoja to ascend the throne, with 32 tales of Vikramaditya's virtue after each, Bhoja acknowledges his inferiority. Pleased with his humility, the statues finally let him ascend the throne.

The author and date of the original work are unknown. Since the story mentions Bhoja (who died in 1055), it must have been composed after the 11th century. [24] Five primary recensions of the Sanskrit version, Simhasana-dvatrimsika, are dated to the 13th and 14th centuries. [25] According to Sujan Rai's 1695 Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh, its author was Bhoja's wazir (prime minister) Pandit Braj. [26]

Vetala Panchavimshati and Simhasana Dvatrimsika are structurally opposite. In the Vetala tales, Vikramaditya is the central character of the frame story but is unconnected with the individual tales except for hearing them from the vetala. Although the frame story of the Throne Tales is set long after Vikramaditya's death, those tales describe his life and deeds. [27]

Bhavishya Purana Edit

Paramara-era legends associate the Paramara rulers with legendary kings, in order to enhance the Paramara imperial claims. [28] The Bhavishya Purana, an ancient Hindu text which has been edited till as late as 19th century, [29] connects Vikramaditya to the Paramaras. According to the text (3.1.6.45-7.4), the first Paramara king was Pramara (born from a fire pit at Mount Abu, thus an Agnivansha). Vikramaditya, Shalivahana and Bhoja are described as Pramara's descendants and members of the Paramara dynasty. [23]

According to the Bhavishya Purana, when the world was degraded by non-Vedic faiths, Shiva sent Vikramaditya to earth and established a throne decorated with 32 designs for him (a reference to Simhasana Dvatrimsika). Shiva's wife, Parvati, created a vetala to protect Vikramaditya and instruct him with riddles (a reference to Baital Pachisi legends). After hearing the vetala's stories, Vikramaditya performed an ashvamedha (horse sacrifice). The wandering of the sacrificial horse defined the boundary of Vikramaditya's empire: the Indus River in the west, Badaristhana (Badrinath) in the north, Kapila in the east and Setubandha (Rameshwaram) in the south. The emperor united the four Agnivanshi clans by marrying princesses from the three non-Paramara clans: Vira from the Chauhan clan, Nija from the Chalukya clan, and Bhogavati from the Parihara clan. All the gods except Chandra celebrated his success (a reference to the Chandravanshis, rivals of Suryavanshi clans such as the Paramaras). [30]

There were 18 kingdoms in Vikramaditya's empire of Bharatavarsha (India). After a flawless reign, he ascended to heaven. [30] At the beginning of the Kali Yuga, Vikramaditya came from Kailasa and convened an assembly of sages from the Naimisha Forest. Gorakhnath, Bhartrhari, Lomaharsana, Saunaka and other sages recited the Puranas and the Upapuranas. [30] A hundred years after Vikramaditya's death, the Shakas invaded India again. Shalivahana, Vikramaditya's grandson, subjugated them and other invaders. Five hundred years after Shalivahana's death, Bhoja defeated later invaders. [23]

Several works by Jain authors contain legends about Vikramaditya, including: [31]

    's Prabhavaka Charita (1127 CE)
  • Somaprabha's Kumara-Pala-Pratibodha (1184)
  • Kalakacharya-Katha (before 1279)
  • Merutunga's Prabandha-Chintamani (1304)
  • Jinaprabhasuri's Vividha-Tirtha-Kalpa (1315)
  • Rajashekhara's Prabandha-Kosha (1348)
  • Devamurti's Vikrama-Charitra (1418)
  • Ramachandrasuri's Pancha-Danda-Chhattra-Prabandha (1433)
  • Subhashila's Vikrama-Charitra (1442) (lists of head monks)

Few references to Vikramaditya exist in Jain literature before the mid-12th century, although Ujjain appears frequently. After the Jain king Kumarapala ( r . 1143–1172 ), it became fashionable among Jain writers to compare Kumarapala to Vikramaditya. By the end of the 13th century, legends featuring Vikramaditya as a Jain emperor began surfacing. A major theme in Jain tradition is that the Jain acharya Siddhasena Divakara converted Vikramaditya to Jainism. He is said to have told Vikramaditya that 1,199 years after him, there would be another great king like him (Kumarapala). [32]

Jain tradition originally had four Simhasana-related stories and four vetala-related puzzle stories. Later Jain authors adopted the 32 Simhasana Dvatrimsika and 25 Vetala Panchavimshati stories. [31]

The Jain author Hemachandra names Vikramaditya as one of four learned kings the other three are Shalivahana, Bhoja and Munja. [33] Merutunga's Vicarasreni places his victory at Ujjain in 57 BCE, and hints that his four successors ruled from 3 to 78 CE. [34]

Shalivahana-Vikramaditya rivalry Edit

Many legends, particularly Jain legends, associate Vikramaditya with Shalivahana of Pratishthana (another legendary king). In some he is defeated by Shalivahana, who begins the Shalivahana era in others, he is an ancestor of Shalivahana. A few legends call the king of Pratishthana "Vikramaditya". Political rivalry between the kings is sometimes extended to language, with Vikramaditya supporting Sanskrit and Shalivahana supporting Prakrit. [35]

In the Kalakacharya-Kathanaka, Vikramaditya's father Gardabhilla abducted the sister of Kalaka (a Jain acharya). At Kalaka's insistence, the Shakas invaded Ujjain and made Gardabhilla their prisoner. Vikramaditya later arrived from Pratishthana, defeated the Shakas, and began the Vikrama Samvat era to commemorate his victory. [21] [36] According to Alain Daniélou, the Vikramaditya in this legend refers to a Satavahana king. [37]

Other Jain texts contain variations of a legend about Vikramaditya's defeat at the hands of the king of Pratishthana, known as Satavahana or Shalivahana. This theme is found in Jina-Prabhasuri's Kalpa-Pradipa, Rajashekhara's Prabandha-Kosha and Salivahana-Charitra, a Marathi work. According to the legend, Satavahana was the child of the Nāga (serpent) chief Shesha and a Brahmin widow who lived in the home of a potter. His name, Satavahana, was derived from satani (give) and vahana (a means of transport) because he sculpted elephants, horses and other means of transport with clay and gave them to other children. Vikramaditya perceived omens that his killer had been born. He sent his vetala to find the child the vetala traced Satavahana in Pratishthana, and Vikramaditya led an army there. With Nāga magic, Satavahana converted his clay figures of horses, elephants and soldiers into a real army. He defeated Vikramaditya (who fled to Ujjain), began his own era, and became a Jain. [38] [33] [39] There are several variations of this legend: Vikramaditya is killed by Satavahana's arrow in battle he marries Satavahana's daughter and they have a son (known as Vikramasena or Vikrama-charitra), or Satavahana is the son of Manorama, wife of a bodyguard of the king of Pratishthana. [38]

In a medieval Tamil legend Vikramaditya has 32 marks on his body, a characteristic of universal emperors. A Brahmin in need of Alchemic quicksilver tells him that it can be obtained if the emperor offers his head to the goddess Kamakshi of Kanchipuram. Although Vikramaditya agrees to sacrifice himself, the goddess fulfills his wish without the sacrifice. [40]

In another Tamil legend, Vikramaditya offers to perform a variant of the navakhandam rite (cutting the body in nine places) to please the gods. He offers to cut his body in eight places (for the eight Bhairavas), and offers his head to the goddess. In return, he convinces the goddess to end human sacrifice. [40]

Chola Purva Patayam (Ancient Chola Record), a Tamil manuscript of uncertain date, contains a legend about the divine origin of the three Tamil dynasties. In this legend, Shalivahana (also known as Bhoja) is a shramana king. He defeats Vikramaditya, and begins persecuting worshipers of Shiva and Vishnu. Shiva then creates the three Tamil kings to defeat him: Vira Cholan, Ula Cheran, and Vajranga Pandiyan. The kings have a number of adventures, including finding treasures and inscriptions of Hindu kings from the age of Shantanu to Vikramaditya. They ultimately defeat Shalivahana in the year 1443 (of an uncertain calendar era, possibly from the beginning of Kali Yuga). [41]

According to a legend in Ayodhya, the city was re-discovered by Vikramaditya after it was lost for centuries. Vikramaditya began searching for Ayodhya and met Prayaga, the king of tirthas. Guided by Prayaga, Vikramaditya marked the place but then forgot where it was. A yogi told him that he should free a cow and calf Ayodhya would be where milk began to flow from the cow's udder. Following this advice, Vikramaditya found the site of ancient Ayodhya. [42]

According to Hans T. Bakker, present-day Ayodhya was originally the Saketa mentioned in Buddhist sources. The Gupta emperor Skandagupta, who compared himself to Rama and was also known as Vikramaditya, moved his capital to Saketa and renamed it Ayodhya after the legendary city in the Ramayana. [42] The Vikramaditya mentioned in Paramartha's fourth–fifth century CE biography of Vasubandhu is generally identified with a Gupta king, such as Skandagupta [43] or Purugupta. [9] Although the Gupta kings ruled from Pataliputra, Ayodhya was within their domain. However, scholars such as Ashvini Agrawal reject this account as inaccurate. [44]

According to Ananta's 12th-century heroic poem, Vira-Charitra (or Viracharita), Shalivahana (or Satavahana) defeated and killed Vikramaditya and ruled from Pratishthana. Shalivahana's associate, Shudraka, later allied with Vikramaditya's successors and defeated Shalivahana's descendants. This legend contains a number of mythological stories. [45] [46]

Śivadāsa's 12th– to 14th-century Śālivāhana Kātha (or Shalivahana-Charitra) similarly describes the rivalry between Vikramaditya and Shalivahana. [47] Ānanda's Mādhavānala Kāmakandalā Kathā is a story of separated lovers who are reunited by Vikramaditya. [47] Vikramodaya is a series of verse tales in which the emperor appears as a wise parrot a similar series is found in the Jain text, Pārśvanāthacaritra. [47] The 15th-century—or later—Pañcadaṇḍachattra Prabandha (The Story of Umbrellas With Five Sticks) contains "stories of magic and witchcraft, full of wonderful adventures, in which Vikramāditya plays the rôle of a powerful magician". [47] Ganapati's 16th-century Gujarati work, Madhavanala-Kamakandala-Katha, also contains Vikramaditya stories. [35]

In Jyotirvidabharana (22.10), a treatise attributed to Kalidasa, nine noted scholars (the Navaratnas) were at Vikramaditya's court: [12]

However, many scholars consider Jyotirvidabharana a literary forgery written after Kalidasa's death. [12] According to V. V. Mirashi, who dates the work to the 12th century, it could not have been composed by Kalidasa because it contains grammatical errors. [21] There is no mention of such Navaratnas in earlier literature, and D. C. Sircar calls Jyotirvidabharana "absolutely worthless for historical purposes". [48]

There is no historical evidence indicating that the nine scholars were contemporary figures or proteges of the same king. [21] [49] Vararuchi is believed to have lived around the third or fourth century CE. Although Kalidasa's lifetime is debated, most historians place him around the fifth century Varahamihira is known to have lived in the sixth century. Dhanavantari was the author of a medical glossary (a nighantu), but his lifetime is uncertain. Amarasimha cannot be dated with certainty either, but his lexicon uses works by Dhanavantari and Kalidasa therefore, he cannot be dated to the first century BCE (Vikramaditya is said to have established an era in 57 BCE). Little is known about Shanku, Vetalabhatta, Kshapanaka and Ghatakarpara. Some Jain writers identify Siddhasena Divakara as Kshapanaka, but this is not accepted by historians. [50]

Kalidasa is the only figure whose association with Vikramaditya is mentioned in works earlier than Jyotirvidabharana. According to Rajasekhara's Kāvyamimāṃsa (10th century), Bhoja's Sringara Prakasa and Kshemendra's Auchitya-Vichara-Charcha (both 11th century), Vikramaditya sent Kalidasa as his ambassador to the Kuntala country (present-day Uttara Kannada). However, the historicity of these reports is doubtful. [51]

Although some authors believe that Vikramaditya was a mythical character, others hypothesize that he was a historical Malava king from around the first century BCE. Still others believe that he was a legendary character based on an historical king, identified as Chandragupta II, Gautamiputra Satakarni or Yashodharman. [49] Vikramaditya may also be based on several kings, legends about whom gradually coalesced into a tradition surrounding him. According to K. Krishnamoorthy, "Vikramaditya" and "Kalidasa" were used as common nouns to identify a patron king and court poet. [52]

Malava king Edit

Rajbali Pandey, Kailash Chand Jain and others believe that Vikramaditya was an Ujjain-based Malava king. The Shakas advanced from Sindh to Malwa around the first century BCE, and were defeated by Vikramaditya. The Krita era, which later came to be known as Vikrama Samvat, marked this victory. Chandragupta II later adopted the title of Vikramaditya after defeating the Shakas. Proponents of this theory say that Vikramaditya is mentioned in works dating to before the Gupta era, including Brihatkatha and Gatha Saptashati. Vikramaditya cannot be based on Chandragupta II, since the Gupta capital was at Pataliputra (not Ujjain). [49] According to Raj Pruthi, legends surrounding this first-century king gradually became intertwined with those of later kings called "Vikramaditya" (including Chandragupta II). [36]

Critics of this theory say that Gatha Saptashati shows clear signs of Gupta-era interpolation. [2] According to A. K. Warder, Brihatkathamanjari and Kathasaritsagara are "enormously inflated and deformed" recensions of the original Brihatkatha. [20] The early Jain works do not mention Vikramaditya and the navaratnas have no historical basis as the nine scholars do not appear to have been contemporary figures. [49] Legends surrounding Vikramaditya are contradictory, border on the fantastic and are inconsistent with historical facts no epigraphic, numismatic or literary evidence suggests the existence of a king with the name (or title) of Vikramaditya around the first century BCE. Although the Puranas contain genealogies of significant Indian kings, they do not mention a Vikramaditya ruling from Ujjain or Pataliputra before the Gupta era. There is little possibility of an historically-unattested, powerful emperor ruling from Ujjain around the first century BCE among the Shungas (187–78 BCE), the Kanvas (75–30), the Satavahanas (230 BCE–220 CE), the Shakas (c. 200 BCE – c. 400 CE ) and the Indo-Greeks (180 BCE–10 CE). [13] [49]

Gupta kings Edit

A number of Gupta Empire kings adopted the title of Vikramaditya or its equivalent, such as Samudragupta's "Parakramanka". According to D. C. Sircar, Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri and others, the exploits of these kings contributed to the Vikramaditya legends. Distinctions among them were lost over time, and the legendary Shalivahana was similarly based on the exploits of several Satavahana kings. [53]

Chandragupta II Edit

Some scholars, including D. R. Bhandarkar, V. V. Mirashi and D. C. Sircar, believe that Vikramaditya is probably based on the Gupta king Chandragupta II. [21] [49] Based on coins and the Supia pillar inscription, it is believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya. [21] [54] The Khambat and Sangli plates of the Rashtrakuta king Govinda IV use the epithet "Sahasanka", which has also been applied to Vikramaditya, for Chandragupta II. [49] According to Alf Hiltebeitel, Chandragupta's victory against the Shakas was transposed to a fictional character who is credited with establishing the Vikrama Samvat era. [23]

In most of the legends Vikramaditya had his capital at Ujjain, although some mention him as king of Pataliputra (the Gupta capital). According to D. C. Sircar, Chandragupta II may have defeated the Shaka invaders of Ujjain and made his son, Govindagupta, a viceroy there. Ujjain may have become a second Gupta capital, and legends about him (as Vikramaditya) may have developed. [49] [55] The Guttas of Guttavalal, a minor dynasty based in present-day Karnataka, claimed descent from the Gupta Empire. Their Chaudadanapura inscription alludes to Vikramaditya ruling from Ujjain, and several Gutta kings were named Vikramaditya. According to Vasundhara Filliozat, the Guttas confused Vikramaditya with Chandragupta II [56] however, D. C. Sircar sees this as further proof that Vikramaditya was based on Chandragupta II. [57]

Skandagupta Edit

The Vikramaditya of Ayodhya legend is identified as Skandagupta ( r . 455 – 467 CE ) by a number of scholars. [42] [43] Book 18 of the Kathasaritsagara describes Vikramaditya as a son of Mahendraditya of Ujjain. According to D.C. Sircar, Kumaragupta I (r. 415–455 CE) adopted the title Mahendraditya. His son, Skandagupta, adopted the title Vikramaditya, and this set of legends may be based on Skandagupta. [22]

Other rulers Edit

In the Kathasaritsagara recension of the 25 vetala stories, the king is mentioned as the ruler of Pratishthana. A. K. Warder notes that the Satavahanas were the only notable ancient dynasty who ruled from Pratishthana. [17] According to a Satavahana inscription, their king Gautamiputra Satakarni defeated the Shakas. One of Gautamiputra Satakarni's epithets was vara-varana-vikrama-charu-vikrama. However, according to D. C. Sircar, the epithet means "one whose gait is as beautiful as that of a choice elephant" and is unrelated to Vikramaditya. Most other Vikramaditya legends note the king's capital as Ujjain (or, less commonly, Pataliputra), but the Satavahanas never had their capital at these cities. Vikramaditya was also described as an adversary of the Pratishthana-based king Satavahana (or Shalivahana) in a number of legends. [58]

Max Müller believed that the Vikramaditya legends were based on the sixth-century Aulikara king Yashodharman. The Aulikaras used the Malava era (later known as Vikrama Samvat) in their inscriptions. According to Rudolf Hoernlé, the name of the Malava era was changed to Vikramaditya by Yashodharman. Hoernlé also believed that Yashodharman conquered Kashmir and is the Harsha Vikramaditya mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. [12] Although Yashodharman defeated the Hunas (who were led by Mihirakula), the Hunas were not the Shakas Yashodharman's capital was at Dasapura (modern Mandsaur), not Ujjain. There is no other evidence that he inspired the Vikramaditya legends. [59] [60]

Several Vikramaditya stories appear in the Amar Chitra Katha comic-book series. [61] Indian films on king Vikramaditya include G. V. Sane's Vikram Satvapariksha (1921), Nanubhai B. Desai's Vikram Charitra (1924), Harshadrai Sakerlal Mehta's Vikram Charitra (1933), Vikram Shashikala (1949), Vijay Bhatt's Vikramaditya (1945), Kemparaj Urs' Raja Vikrama (1950), Dhirubhai Desai's Raja Vikram (1957), Chandrasekhara Rao Jampana's Bhatti Vikramarka (1960), T. R. Raghunath's Vikramaadhithan (1962), Chakravarty Vikramaditya (1964), S. N. Tripathi's Maharaja Vikram (1965), G. Suryam's Vikramarka Vijayam (1971), Shantilal Soni's Vikram Vetal (1986), Krishna's Simhasanam and Singhasan (1986), Ravi Raja Pinisetty's Raja Vikramarka (1990), Rajiv Chilakalapudi's Vikram Betal (2004). [62]

Vikram Aur Betaal, which appeared on Doordarshan in the 1980s, was based on Baital Pachisi. Kahaniya Vikram aur Betaal Ki, a remake of the Doordarshan television show, aired on Colors TV in 2009. An adaptation of Singhasan Battisi was aired on Doordarshan during the late 1980s. In 2014, another adaptation was aired on Sony Pal. [63] Currently a series Vikram Betaal Ki Rahasya Gatha is running on &TV where popular actor Aham Sharma is playing the role of Vikramaditya.

The Indian Navy aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya was named in honour of Vikramaditya. [64] On 22 December 2016, a commemorative postage stamp honouring Samrat Vikramadittya was released by India Post. [65] Historical-fiction author Shatrujeet Nath retells the emperor's story in his Vikramaditya Veergatha series. [66]


Song For Sushant Singh Rajput Is Winning Hearts Lyricist Aditya Chakravarty Says It Meant To Empathise With The Late Actor’s Family

Song for Sushant meant to empathise with his family: Lyricist (Photo Credit: Facebook/Sushant Singh Rajput)

A song dedicated to Sushant Singh Rajput and released recently is not surprisingly winning over his fans. The melodious track has been shared on social media by family members of the late actor.

Titled “Insaaf ye ek sawaal hai”, the song talks of justice. It has been written by Aditya Chakravarty and produced by Sushant’s family friend Nilotpal Mrinal, who took part in the late actor’s last rites. Varun Jain has lent his voice to the song composed by Shubham Sundaram.

Talking about the song, lyricist Aditya Chakravarty told IANS: “The song is a tribute to Sushant Singh Rajput. Sushant’s family friend Nilotpal Mrinal, who is also a friend of composer Shubham Sundaram, had approached us saying he wants to give a musical tribute to Sushant. That’s how the song was made.”

Trending

“Ek sitaara woh asmaan ka rehta ab behaal hai, kya milega uski rooh ko insaaf ye ek sawaal hai…” reads a couple of lines from the song.

On what inspired him to pen lyrics that talk of seeking justice, Aditya replied: “The inspiration behind the song was empathy. I could empathise with his father, his sisters and other family members. We all want the mystery behind his death to be solved. The loss is not as personal to us as it is to them. They are in deep pain. They wanted a star in their life, they got him but they lost him too soon.”

Now that the CBI has taken over the investigation, does he feel Sushant will get justice? “As a citizen of this country, I have total faith in the judicial system, now that the case has been taken over by the CBI. I am sure ‘insaaf’ (justice) will be delivered to his departed soul and to his family members. Justice should also be delivered to each and every person who is struggling for it in every part of this country,” shared the lyricist.


Chapter 12: Leaving China – XIV

In the penultimate part, Mitali shares the woes and wonders of leaving China – a weird local mover, strange rules for expats, her children who hated swanky hotels and more. An exclusive for Different Truths.

It is funny the way we pack our lives in boxes and suitcases and move on… all our memories in our hand phones or laptops. I always think of John Denver’s song Leaving on a Jet Plane 1 .

All my bags are packed, I’m ready to go, I’m standin’ here outside your door
I hate to wake you up to say goodbye…

The sentiment is similar, except the goodbye is to memories, places and friends.

The relocation agents helped us find movers who packed our home into boxes two weeks before our departure.

The relocation agents helped us find movers who packed our home into boxes two weeks before our departure. Earlier, the boxes could be packed on the day the expatriates were leaving. The rules concerning expat repatriation had changed a month before we were due to leave. Many rules had started to change. Xi Jinping had come to power the year before we left.

The boxes with our things and my husband’s passport had to be submitted together to the immigration for a fortnight. Earlier, instead of the passport, they were happy with a photocopy. We were asked to wait for two weeks without our essential household things. As a result, we had to move into a hotel. This was a learning that rules could change anytime in China or elsewhere. We just needed to accept the changes and adapt.

When the movers came, Surya spent all his time with Ali in his home or inside our car.

When the movers came, Surya spent all his time with Ali in his home or inside our car. The movers packed and transferred all our belongings out of the house in a huge, covered truck with their name emblazoned on the vehicle. Everything went, except for the suitcases that had our essentials for a couple of months and the children’s piano. The emptiness of the house felt strange. We wanted to hand over the keys to our landlord at the soonest.

The Pearl River piano, which was bound with happy memories for the children, had to be either abandoned or given away. Moving the piano overseas would cost more than buying a new one in Singapore. We wanted to give the piano to a child who would cherish it as much as our sons. So, we asked around and one of the expat families happily obliged. They had a lovely four-year-old daughter who was starting to learn to play the instrument. They were friends of ours – a Turkish American family with roots in California. Let us call the couple Sabrina and David for convenience. They organised the movers. Their house was about 500 metres from ours. But both the houses had staircases and the piano was delicate.

We decided to organise professional help so that the piano would not be damaged. Sabrina organised a local mover.

We decided to organise professional help so that the piano would not be damaged. Sabrina organised a local mover. He promised to come at 10.30 a.m. Sabrina and David came over at 10.15 in the morning. We waited. It was past 10.30. We waited. 11.00 O’clock. Sabrina telephoned David’s secretary to call the mover as he spoke only Mandarin. The secretary called back and said the mover had almost reached. We informed the security at the gate we were expecting a lorry. Nothing came.

Then, Sabrina’s mother-in-law called up. The mover was in their house. Sabrina ran back to get him. She returned walking in some time. We were all surprised. We had thought she would come in the mover’s van. But she came walking!

We all looked at her in askance. “He has not got his lorry. He is coming here on his e-bike,” she explained. As she finished her sentence, an e-bike drew up in front of our house.

A tiny dwarf of a skinny man got off. He smiled, nodded and greeted us, “Ni hao (how are you)?” We all greeted him too. “Ni hao.”

He swaggered in as if on a social visit. He walked towards the piano. Aditya, our translator, told him we needed to move the piano from our home to Sabrina’s.

He swaggered in as if on a social visit. He walked towards the piano. Aditya, our translator, told him we needed to move the piano from our home to Sabrina’s. He responded by saying that he needed ten men to lift it. When Aditya asked him about his lorry, he responded by saying the vehicle would break under the piano’s weight!

We were astounded! He told us the piano could not be moved that day as he would have to get ten men and they were all busy. He stayed for fifteen minutes trying to explain how impossible and unreasonable it was to think of moving the piano that day itself. Such things took time was his final verdict. He stated this with aplomb, much like a local Julius Caesar – veni, vidi, vici…

However, we were not convinced. We needed to move the piano that day as the keys had to be handed over to the landlord the next day. So, the mover came, saw and left – much like the fishpond cleaners who had given us a taste of what to expect from ‘regular’ workers.

Aditya said, “This guy is bizarre. Only two of us moved the piano at school on a trolley.”

“But we don’t have a trolley. And we need to move it today,” I said.

“We could do it by sliding the piano on a rug or a carpet,” said my husband.

The movers had packed our rugs and carpets and taken them away. Sabrina got two rugs from her home. We roped in another friend’s husband, David’s father and our driver to help us. So, half a dozen men panted up and down and up the stairs of Sabrina’s home with the piano and rugs. It took quite some time and a lot of effort. It was a case of amazing teamwork which I thought was so nice to watch but I am not so sure that it was nice for the team to heave and shove so as not to damage the piano!

Sabrina organised huge jugs of lemonade for all the movers. Aditya inaugurated the piano in their home.

Sabrina organised huge jugs of lemonade for all the movers. Aditya inaugurated the piano in their home. Now, we were officially ready to hand over the keys the next day.

The landlord came with his wife this time. They told us they would have liked us to continue as long as we were in China. They were very kind. They loved what I had done to the garden. His wife was thrilled seeing I had planted a Chinese flowering plant, called the Yue Liang Hua (the moon flower). She said this flower was associated with Shanghai, where she grew up. I knew this flower had a heady perfume and my driver often used it inside the car instead of a car perfume. They were equally excited with the fishpond, where the koi had bred and now I had nearly two dozen fishes.

We had to stay in the hotel for almost a fortnight. That was a long time for us. Staying in a hotel has always been a trial for my trio.

We had to stay in the hotel for almost a fortnight. That was a long time for us. Staying in a hotel has always been a trial for my trio. I still recall the time Aditya first stayed in Sheraton in Hong Kong. He was four and did not like the hotel food. He asked me if I could cook for him. In Hawaii, when he was six, he threw up on an exclusive hotel meal in a six-star resort, where we were having an official gathering!

Surya was not much better. When he was one-and-a-half, we were staying for a long weekend in Johor, Malaysia. He shook his foot so much in delight while seated on a high-chair in the 24-hour coffee shop of the hotel that his shoes flew off and landed on somebody in the adjoining table. Seeing the ruckus, it created, Surya decided to fling his shoes every time he was put into a baby chair in the restaurant. It became a nightmare for us. The hotel staff were terrified whenever we entered the coffee shop. They would put us in a corner table emptied of all cutlery and napkins as they did not want Surya to exercise his skills on their wares or aim his shoes at their customers!

Two-year-old Surya discovered the joys of a rotating door in the hotel. The doormen were terrified again and requested we keep him away from the doors…

When we moved to China, we had to stay a week in a hotel while our home was readied for us. Two-year-old Surya discovered the joys of a rotating door in the hotel. The doormen were terrified again and requested we keep him away from the doors – not an easy task when we were in the lobby. Surya protested being cooped in a luxurious room where he had no freedom to practise his sporting skills. He also wanted to catch the fish in an indoor koi pond in the hotel and the staff had a tough time being polite about it. Staying with a toddler in a hotel is not exactly a relaxing affair.

This time the two of them were older. We had a beautiful view of the Jinji Lake from our rooms. The sunset on the lake against the silhouette of tall buildings was spectacular. Aditya had a separate room. Surya was ten and Aditya seventeen-and-a-half. They were a little better adjusted in the hotel than eight years ago… except Surya had the whole security on my tracks when I got a little delayed in the lift one day.

I had gone to get his swimming goggles when he discovered he had left them behind in our room. I told him to get changed and wait by the poolside while I fetched the goggles. The lift was a little delayed. The lifeguards and attendants stood around him when I returned to the poolside. It seems they could not reach me when they tried to call my mobile. I had been gone only about ten to fifteen minutes. It was a big hotel, and I had the walk between our room and the pool then I had to unlock the door and take the goggles.

Surya was singing a nonsensical song that day and doing weird walks along the corridor in a bid to dispense his extra energy.

As I was returning to the poolside, I was delayed as I was greeted by another guest, an American who lived in the hotel permanently. I had to tell him where Surya was in response to his query. We had got acquainted when he and his visiting teenage son, commented on Surya’s antics. Surya was singing a nonsensical song that day and doing weird walks along the corridor in a bid to dispense his extra energy. It was hazy with pollution outside, and we could not do our usual walk for the high PSI levels.

At home, Surya would have read, played a game, visited a friend or had one over. But in the hotel, he had to create his own sport. We had an amused audience of the American and his son… To me it was really strange that a person, even if he were living alone, would choose to stay in a hotel on a daily basis. It could be so restrictive. You could never satisfy your yearning to cook a gastronomic delight! You could never do up your room with your choice of colours and paintings. You could never invite your friends over for a meal cooked by you. You could never try out a new musical instrument in the later hours of the evening.

Trying out a musical instrument in an apartment is difficult too if you come to think of it. I remember, in Suzhou, a friend’s husband practiced his guitaring in their penthouse every night. The downstairs found it unacceptable and complained regularly.

When Aditya practiced his French horn, our Finnish neighbour upstairs was really delighted. He wanted to know if Aditya could play the Finnish National Anthem on the French horn.

Aditya could you play the Finnish National Anthem on the French horn, pretty please. PC: Anumita C Roy

We were luckier. When Aditya practiced his French horn, our Finnish neighbour upstairs was really delighted. He wanted to know if Aditya could play the Finnish National Anthem on the French horn. In fact, in my first bungalow, I remember when Aditya started the French horn in school, he would practice exactly at the time we had dinner. And it was a painful experience for us to hear what sounded like an elephants’ snorting loudly in the next room. Then, a friend told us, their kid practising the violin resembled the sound of a pig being slaughtered and the father would run out of the house with cotton stuffed in his ears! So, by and large, we had never had issues with boys practising the piano, guitar, recorder or clarinet at home in a bungalow or in the apartments. And eventually, the results of being tolerant were fabulous. My heart swelled with pride when Aditya played a solo on his French horn on stage – Beethoven’s Ode to Joy. I remember Surya was four and he loved it too. He hummed it on the way to his kindergarten. I wanted him to hum it for his teacher, but he was silent. He would not do it.

One of the things I have discovered as a parent is if you want your children to excel at something, the best option is to give them plenty of space and not push them to be child prodigies. After all Mozart – the child prodigy – had a miserable life. I wanted my sons to be happy and not prodigies. Childhood is a time for fun, for learning to think, for learning from mistakes, for being able to make noise and run and play, for wild imaginings, for make believe, for moving towards realising their wonderful dreams and finding out who they are and not who their parents imagine they want them to be.

While we waited at the hotel to leave China, we spent our time doing last-minute visits to different places, going for walks along Jinji and eating out.

While we waited at the hotel to leave China, we spent our time doing last minute visits to different places, going for walks along Jinji and eating out. Most of our friends had left for their annual home leave. Only Ali’s family remained. They were also leaving Suzhou two weeks after us and were in the process of packing their home into boxes too. Our farewell parties had all been done earlier – only the official farewells remained. We had gifts starting from calligraphies to books to oodles of Chinese tea given to us. We came away feeling we would always have friends there, not just in the expat community but among locals.

We bid adieu to a number of our favourite spots. There were these elaborate gardens the Humble Administrator’s garden 2 which was glorious during spring with cherry blossoms and our favourite, the Lion Forest Garden 3 , built during the Yuan Dynasty in the fourteenth century, the Panmen Gate 4 and the canal around it. The Lion Forest Garden, other than plants, had concrete passages and mazes that my sons loved – much in the same tradition as the rocks that Surya and his friends liked to hack in our garden. The Panmen Gate belonged to the BCEs as did the buildings around it. We visited the 2,500year-old Tiger Hill 5 with a Pagoda which leans a bit and for that reason is often compared to the famous leaning tower of Pisa. Most of these were restorations as they had crumbled not just in time but also been wrecked by the Red Guards. They had to be reconstructed again in the twentieth century.

In India where I grew up, in many of the countries I had visited in Europe and Asia, I had seen so much of preserved history that I felt reconstructions were not authentic and were less valuable.

In India where I grew up, in many of the countries I had visited in Europe and Asia, I had seen so much of preserved history that I felt reconstructions were not authentic and were less valuable. But then, I saw Angkor Wat 6 which I visited after returning from China. It had to be restored brick by brick and also the temple where they shot the Lara Croft movie, Tomb Raiders, Ta Prohm. Ta Prohm was being restored by the Archaeological Survey of India. These made me feel that perhaps restorations were not such a bad thing after all – it generated jobs and preserved heritage.

One can see amazing restorations in Yogyakarta too – the Prambanan temple 7 , which houses a temple to Brahma and many other Hindu deities, has been restored, the guide told us, with efforts of the Muslim majority. Syncretic lore actually flourishes in Indonesia with artistes participating in the performance of Ramayana, irrespective of their religion, caste or creed. The temples we visited seemed to be populated with devout worshippers of all faiths and cultures. I do not know if breaking mosques 8 to build temples that might have been built on an older Buddhist site makes any sense. Old buildings have dignity, heritage and history, which wealth cannot buy.

Wrecking an old monument to avenge a six-hundred-year-old historic event – do you feel that is justified?

Imitation London Bridge, Suzhou

Wrecking an old monument to avenge a six-hundred-year-old historic event – do you feel that is justified? Or will vandalising the statues of Columbus 9 or Walt Whitman 10 erase the darkness of racism that is concealed in people’s hearts? Can history be changed with violence that is in itself reflective of hatred and angst?

Imitations were another thing we enjoyed in China. Suzhou proudly hosted an imitation London Bridge 11 . This had nothing to do with antiquity but was a downright imitation. Having visited the original, I do have some reservations about the one I saw in Suzhou. I remember a friend of mine and I visited it for the first time. The bright red and turquoise combination and a café in one of the towers seemed a trifle strange. When we visited it last just for fun, they were growing a whole township around it.

Leaving is always sad. But this time tinged with sadness was a sense of relief.

Leaving is always sad. But this time tinged with sadness was a sense of relief. The wonder and acceptance that was evident in the local attitude towards foreigners when we came in 2006 was being replaced with a feeling that did not seem so friendly. Many of our expatriate friends were being replaced by returning Chinese. Their government welcomed back these people with hefty salaries – no questions asked. And the amazing thing was many of the returning population had taken on different nationalities. I still remember that in a function celebrating the variety of races that added colour to the school community, the American team was the largest and made up mainly of Chinese. When I mentioned it laughingly to the American team lead, she retorted in good humour, “Why? Are you jealous? Do you want some of them in India too?” In context of the current virulence towards tolerating differences in the world, that seems like another world, another era, another age.

Too many changes were taking place. We found that the local populace had started finding their voices and there were occasional disturbances we heard. Rules were being tightened. The bubble could burst any minute.


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Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company was established in 1994 as a joint venture between the Aditya Birla Group and the Sun Life Financial of Canada where the former owns 51% and the rest by latter which is a leading international financial services organization providing a diverse range of wealth accumulation, protection products, and services to individuals and corporate customers. [6] [7]

Aditya Birla Financial Services Group (ABFSG) is the umbrella brand for all the financial services business of The Aditya Birla Group. ABFSG ranks among the top five fund managers in India (including LIC) with an AUM of around Rs 3 trillion by 2021 [6] . [ citation needed ] The company provides life insurance, asset management, lending (excluding Housing), housing finance, equity & commodity broking, wealth management and distribution, online money management portal—Aditya Birla Money MyUniverse, general insurance advisory and private equity and health insurance businesses, for retail and corporate customers. In FY 2013–14, ABFSG reported consolidated revenue from these businesses at just under ₹ 70 billion (US$980 million) and profits of about ₹ 7.5 billion (US$110 million). [ citation needed ] The company has 14,000 employees and over 6 million customers, with 1,500 points of presence and about 130,000 agents/channel partners. [ citation needed ]

Sun Life Financial, Inc. operates in India through Aditya Birla Sun Life Asset Management. Established in 1994, Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company Ltd. (BSLAMC), investment manager for Birla Sun Life mutual fund, has been a joint venture between the Aditya Birla Group and Sun Life Financial Inc. since 1999. Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund was the fourth largest Fund house in India based on domestic average assets under management as published by AMFI for the quarter ended March 31, 2014. [ citation needed ]

On 20 April 2021, Aditya Birla Sun Life Asset management company filed Draft Red Herring Prospectus (DRHP) to the Securities and Exchange Board of India in order to raise funds through an initial public offering (IPO). [8]

It offers a various investment schemes including debt and treasury products, investment solutions including fund of fund schemes, Wealth Creation, Tax Savings, diversified and sector specific equity schemes and also introduced research-based investments, wealth management services, Regular Income Schemes, offshore funds, hybrid and monthly income funds, and Savings Schemes. Till year 2020, it had the largest team of research analysts in the Insurance industry with operations in major worldwide markets, including the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Japan, Indonesia, Philippines, Ireland, China, Hong Kong, Bermuda, and India.


Some Lesser Known Facts About Rhea Chakraborty

A Childhood Picture of Rhea Chakraborty With Her Parents

  • She has worked as a host in various TV shows, including ‘Pepsi MTV Wassup’ (2009), ‘MTV Gone in 60 seconds’ (2010), and ‘TicTac College Beat’ (2012).
  • She has acted in various Bollywood films, including ‘Sonali Cable’ (2014), ‘Half Girlfriend’ (2017), ‘Bank Chor’ (2017), ‘Jalebi’ (2018), and ‘Chehre’ (2020).
  • She has featured in various TV commercials including Yepme, Stayfree, and Maruti Suzuki.

Rhea Chakraborty in O Heeriye

Rhea Chakraborty Featured on a Renowned Magazine

Rhea Chakraborty With Mahesh Bhatt

I use a lot of Coconut oil. I drink it, I apply it on my face. And I can’t emphasise it enough.”

Rhea Chakraborty’s Facebook Post on Salman Khan

  • Her looks are compared with the Bollywood actress, Genelia D’Souza.
  • In an interview, when asked about her relationship with Sushant Singh Rajput, she said,

We’ve been very good friends for many years. I am fond of working towards our shared goals, like starting our new NGO, and travelling. If there is anything else between us or not, this isn’t something that I want to disclose yet.”

  • Reportedly, before committing suicide on 14 June 2020, Sushant had made the last phone call to Rhea.

Rhea Chakraborty at the Hospital Where Sushant Singh Rajput’s Body was Kept


Watch the video: তম রব নরব -Tumi Robe Nirobe Rabindra Sangeet. Aditi Chakraborty. Full Video Song. Gan Goppo (December 2021).