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Naval battle of Cumae, 474 BC

Naval battle of Cumae, 474 BC

Naval battle of Cumae, 474 BC

The naval battle of Cumae (or Cyme) of 474 BC saw a combined fleet from Syracuse and Cumae defeat an Etruscan fleet in a battle fought in the bay of Naples.

The Greek city of Cyme (Cumae in Latin) had been founded in the 8th century BC in an area towards the southern limits of Etruscan power. The southern Etruscans had been defeated by the Cumaeans in 524 and 504, but still remained a powerful force. In 474 BC they were able to bring together a fleet that was able to directly threaten Cumae.

The Cimaeans send a delegation to Hieron, Tyrant of Syracuse, asking for military assistance. Hieron sent a fleet of triremes to Cumae. The Syracusan fleet was able to reach Cumea, where it united with the local forces. The combined fleet then put out to sea and defeated the Etruscans in a great sea battle. This was later commemorated in Pindar's first Pythian Ode, an account that places the battle off Cumae.

In the long term the battle helped complete the decline of Etruscan power in southern Italy, leaving the area open to incursions by Samnites and Romans. In the short term it helped to establish Hieron's power in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

Background [ edit | edit source ]

After the strengthening of the bond between Octavian and Mark Antony with the Pact of Brundisium, the two triumvirs had to manage the menace of Sextus Pompey, son of Pompey. Sextus had occupied the province of Sicily, which provided much of Rome's grain supply. When Sextus had managed to bring Rome to famine, in 39 BC, Octavian and Antony sought an alliance with him, appointing him governor of Sicily, Sardinia, and the Peloponnese for five years (Treaty of Misenum). The alliance was short-lived, and Sextus cut the grain supply to Rome. Octavian tried to invade Sicily in 38 BC, but his ships were forced to go back because of bad weather.

Agrippa cut through part of the Via Ercolana and dug a channel to connect Lake Lucrinus to the sea, in order to change it into a harbour, which was named Portus Iulius. The new harbour was used to train the ships for naval battles. A new fleet was built, with 20,000 oarsmen gathered by freeing slaves. The new ships were built much larger, in order to carry many more naval infantry units, which were being trained at the same time. Furthermore, Antony lent Octavian 120 ships under the command of Titus Statilius Taurus, for which Octavian was to give him 20,000 infantry to be recruited from northern Italy. While Antony kept his part of the bargain, Octavian did not. In July 36 BC the two fleets sailed from Italy, and another fleet, provided by the third triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, sailed from Africa, to attack Sextus' stronghold in Sicily.

In August, Agrippa was able to defeat Sextus in a naval battle near Mylae (modern Milazzo) that same month Octavian was defeated and seriously wounded in a battle near Taormina.

The Battle of Jutland

There was only one major clash between British and German fleets in World War One, and that was the Battle of Jutland. It took place off the coast of Denmark in the summer of 1916 and remains endlessly controversial thanks to the much-debated actions of Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, who commanded the Royal Navy Grand Fleet. Control of the seas around the United Kingdom was so crucial that Winston Churchill dubbed Jellicoe 'the only man on either side who could have lost the war in an afternoon.'

The Brits won this clash of battleships, but lost many more men than the Germans. The high British body count allowed German propagandists to claim it as a victory, with the Kaiser himself cooing that Jutland had 'torn to shreds' the Royal Navy’s aura of invincibility that had persisted since the Battle of Trafalgar. Despite his victory, Jellicoe was criticised by many on his own side for his leadership in the battle, which according to his detractors was too cautious and prevented him from utterly destroying the German fleet. Whatever the pros and cons of Jellicoe’s strategy, the confrontation at Jutland preserved British dominion of the North Sea, a hard-won prize that came at the expense of thousands of sailors’ lives.

The history of Cuma, a Greek colony

Cumae was a city of the Campania region. It was a historical and cultural city of the ancient world.

It was one of the oldest Magna Graecia colonies, maybe the first one. Founded in the 8th century BC (Maybe in 740 BC) during the Iron age. Then it was abandoned during the Middle Ages, around 1200 AD.

Where are the archaeological excavations of Cumae?

It's located north of Naples, in front of Ischia Island, on the Campania region coast, in the province of Pozzuoli (The Phlegraean Fields). The name of this land came from the Greek meaning: burning land, because there are many hydrothermal phenomena, such as fumaroles and hot springs, because it's a volcanic area.

Short about Greek cities in Italy and Sicily

In the VIII century began Greek colonization, which ended in the VI century BC. After 480 BC and after the battle of Himera, in 474 BC, the naval battle near Cumae and victory over Etruscans – started Greek’s domination over the south. From the second half of the V century due to the internal reasons (Peloponnesian war) Greek cities began to weaken. At the end of VI century aristocratic groups (small, privileged ruling class) became dominated, while Crotonians abolished democratic Sybaris. Local Italic tribes became much stronger. Those Italic tribes were Samnites, Lukanians and Brutians.

In 421 BC, Samnites defeated the Greeks and since then Taranto, Turin and Reggio were often powerless to resist to their attacks. Later, at the beginning of the III century BC, they came into conflict with Rome and after that, they lost their independence. In Sicily, they fought with Carthage, which spread its land on the island at the expense of the Greek cities.

In Italy and in Sicily, the cities were mainly agrarian centres. Italics took from them cultivation of vineyards and olive groves. These cities played a major role in the history of Greek culture in general. In these cities have been developed various philosophical systems, also rhetoric was here developed very early as well. All forms of social, political, cultural, religious systems made a great influence on the Italics. City Cumae, in Campania played a special role. Etruscans took the alphabet from the city Cumae, as well as many Greek customs and beliefs. For residents of Campania, Greek influence had a remarkable significance. Here was created special Campania culture whose specificity retained even after the conquest of Rome.

Battle of Actium

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Battle of Actium, (September 2, 31 bc ), naval battle off a promontory in the north of Acarnania, on the western coast of Greece, where Octavian (known as the emperor Augustus after 27 bc ), by his decisive victory over Mark Antony, became the undisputed master of the Roman world. Antony, with 500 ships and 70,000 infantry, made his camp at Actium, which lies on the southern side of a strait leading from the Ionian Sea into the Ambracian Gulf. Octavian, with 400 ships and 80,000 infantry, arrived from the north and, by occupying Patrae and Corinth, also managed to cut Antony’s southward communications with Egypt via the Peloponnese.

Desertions by some of his allies and a lack of provisions soon forced Antony to take action. Either hoping to win at sea because he was outmaneuvered on land or else simply trying to break the blockade, Antony followed Cleopatra’s advice to employ the fleet. He drew up his ships outside the bay, facing west, with Cleopatra’s squadron behind. The ensuing naval battle was hotly contested, with each side’s squadrons trying to outflank the other, until Cleopatra took her Egyptian galleys and fled the battle. Antony then broke off and with a few ships managed to follow her. The remainder of his fleet became disheartened and surrendered to Octavian, and Antony’s land forces surrendered one week later.

Naval battle of Cumae, 474 BC - History

Top 10: Greatest Naval Battles in History

It is easier to control the ground than the sea. Even the most powerful ones have never fully dominated it.

After all, there is no point in controlling the sea if the ground loses: the French fleet would have been practically useless to De Gaulle, without crushing the Reich.

And controlling the ground without having the sea is, nothing more than submitting to the good will of the enforcers of a lock, like Hamas learned in Gaza.

At the end of the day, what matters is that either the ground or the sea power implies: changing the view of priorities, the strategy, the way of fighting.

As noted Admiral Castex, when there is a casus belli of the ground against the sea, the weapons are different from each belligerent, as well as the techniques for using them.

10. Battle of Lepanto

In the Naval Battle of Lepanto, a fleet of the Holy League, (Republic of Venice, Kingdom of Spain, the Knights of Malta and the Papal States), won the Ottoman Empire, on 7 October 1571, off the coast of Lepanto, Greece.

This battle represented the end of Islamic expansion in the Mediterranean.

In 1570, the Ottoman Turks invaded the island of Cyprus, then in the possession of the Venetian Republic. The Venetians, weakened by years of struggle against the Turks, were forced to ask for help, since the ownership of Cyprus would allow the Turks the mastery of the Mediterranean.

Pope Pius V assembled a squad of 208 galleys and 6 galleons (huge rowing ships with 44 cannons), marine of the Venetian Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Knights of Malta and the Papal States, under the command of John of Austria, forming the so-called Holy League.

This fleet faced 230 Turkish galleys off the coast of Lepanto, Greece.

The fight lasted only three hours. There were destroyed or captured 190 Turkish galleys, while the Christians lost only 12 ships.

Lepanto represented the end of Turkish maritime threat to Europe.

9. Naval Battle of Diu

The naval Battle of Diu took place on February 3, 1509, in the waters near Diu, India, which confronted the naval forces of the Portuguese Empire and a combined fleet of the Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, the Zamorin of Calicut and the Sultan of Gujarat. The battle took on a character of a personal revenge to D. Francisco de Almeida, who lost his son Don Lorenzo in a disaster, in Chaul in 1508.

This battle marked the beginning of the European domain. As a result, the power of the Ottoman Turks in India was seriously shaken, allowing the Portuguese forces, after this battle, quickly conquered the ports and coastal towns on the margins of the Indian Ocean, such as Mombasa, Muscat, Ormuz, Goa, Colombo and Malacca.

The Portuguese monopoly in the Indian lasted until the arrival of the British (British East India Company), which was affirmed through the battle of Swally, near Surat in 1612.

In the battle of Diu, the Portuguese forces were composed of 18 vessels, about 1500 Portuguese men, and 400 Cochin and Cannanore 400 Malabar. The Muslim forces were composed of 12 vessels and about 80 galleys from Gujarat and Calicut. It is known that one of the wounded in battle was Ferdinand Magellan, the navigator who went around the world.

From the wreckage of the battle there were three royal flags of Mamluk Sultan of Cairo, which were forwarded to the Convent of Christ in Tomar (Portugal), spiritual headquarters of the Templar Knights, where they remain to this day.

The Battle of Diu, the most emblematic of the history of the Portuguese Navy, was one of the few naval battles where the losing army was totally annihilated.

However, in a tactical point of view, it represents a setback by the Portuguese, since they returned to give greater importance to approach to combating than the artillery combat.

From the strategic point of view, this was the factor that, above any other, created the conditions that allowed Afonso de Albuquerque conquering Goa in 1510, Malacca in 1511, by entering the Red Sea and forcing the Zamorin of Calicut to sue for peace in 1513, and definitely become lord of Hormuz in 1515.

8. Invincible Armada

The Spanish Armada or Invincible Armada was a fleet assembled by King Philip II in 1588 to invade England.

The Naval Battle of Gravelines was the largest combat of the undeclared Anglo-Spanish War and the attempt of Philip II of neutralizing the English influence on the policy of the Spanish Netherlands and reaffirm hegemony in the fight for the seas.

The Armada consisted of 130 ships with artillery, manned by 8000 sailors, carrying 18,000 soldiers, and was destined to embark on yet another army of 30,000 infants. On command, the Duke of Medina-Sidonia travelled on a Portuguese galleon, the Saint Martin.

In the combat of the English Channel, the British prevented the shipment of troops on the ground, frustrated the plans of invasion and forced the Armada to return bypassing the British Isles.

On the return trip, due to storms, half the ships and their crews were lost.

The episode of the Invincible Armada was a major political and strategic loss to the Spanish crown and had great positive impact for the English National Identity.

This fleet consists of Spanish and Portuguese ships of which 600 were killed, 397 were captured, 1,000 were wounded and 3 sunken ships.

The English Fleet was commanded by Charles Howard and Francis Drake, and it was composed of 197 vessels (34 warships and 163 merchant ships), had 500 killed or wounded.

7. Battle of the Nile

The Battle of the Nile, known in France as the Battle of Aboukir, was an important naval battle of the French Revolutionary Wars between the fleet of the United Kingdom of Great Britain (UK predecessor of today), commanded by Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, and the French fleet under the command of Vice-Admiral François-Paul D’Brueys Aigalliers which took place at night and morning of 1 and 2 August 1798.

The French casualties were very high. 1700 men were killed and 3,000 captured, while the British casualties were quite low, with only 217 dead.

The French fleet had arrived in the Egyptian city of Alexandria on July 1st, two days after the English fleet Nelson had left in pursuit of the French.

French troops landed, and the city was taken. As it was difficult for ships entering the port of Alexandria, Napoleon Bonaparte ordered the Vice Admiral Brueys, captain of the Orient, to drop anchor 13 ships, sand 4 frigates at Aboukir Bay, about 32 km east-northeast of Alexandria, while Napoleon and his troops marched in the Egyptian desert to conquer Cairo.

Meanwhile, the British fleet paced the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, until Greece was informed that the French had been seen four weeks before sailing on Crete for southeast bound for Alexandria.

On the evening of August 1, Nelson finally spotted the fleet of Brueys which was anchored in line in the shallow waters of the Bay of Aboukir with a long and dangerous sandbar at its rear. Brueys thought Nelson would not run the risk of attack until the next day, given the danger posed by trying to navigate the bay with no light.

This situation, however, calls for the ability of experienced sailors and unusual tactics, and it was precisely what distinguished and more excited Nelson.

Nelson’s ships went immediately to both flanks of the the anchored French fleet, but stopped in the middle of the line of ships, which ensured that half of French ships could not take part in the action because they were located downwind.

The French fleet had increased firepower: a ship of 118 guns, three ships of 80 cannons, nine ships of 74 cannons and 4 frigates.

However, this surprise attack of Nelson gave the English the tactical advantage of not losing any ships while the French fleet suffered huge losses: only two survived, others were captured or sunk, including the Orient, which caught fire and exploded during battle. Vice Adm. Brueys was hit and died on the deck of Orient.

Nelson took the win with a wide variety of honors and gifts from foreign powers who recognized him.
Became Baron Nelson of the Nile and began receiving annual pensions of both the English and Irish Parliament. Also received £ 10,000.

6. Battle of Trafalgar

The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval battle between France and Spain against England on 21 October 1805, in the Napoleonic era, off the coast Trafalgar Cape on the Spanish coast.

The Franco-Spanish fleet was commanded by Admiral Villeneuve, while the English were commanded by Admiral Nelson, for many the greatest genius in naval strategy ever. France wanted to invade England by the English Channel, but first had to get rid of the English navy.

The Trafalgar Cape is in south of Cadiz, in the Spanish Atlantic coast. Between 7am and 8am on the morning of 21 October 1805, the two fleets was sighted near Trafalgar Cape, south of Cadiz.

The English side had 27 ships, not counting other frigates and smaller vessels, all equipped with a total of 2650 pieces of artillery. The opponent had 33 ships and 3150 guns. However, historians say, the outnumbered Nelson was not impaired. In fact, their cannons were lighter and allow more rate of fire. Apart from that its ships had greater amount of concentrated cannons.

At 11.45 am the first shot was fired. By 16h00 the fate of the battle was drawn, and at 18:00, the last shot sounded.

As for the number of casualties, the Spanish had in 2500, including 1,000 deaths.

The French lost 3700 men, suffering a total of 5200 losses.

The winners had lost 450 soldiers and 1700 casualties. The victory began the design of the strategy and organization. The Franco-Spanish fleet as it was classic, was prepared with all profiled boats, offering a barrier extensive and brutal fire. Instead of also form a similar alignment, Nelson opted to order the formation of two columns, and so fall upon the enemy line. The aim was from the alignment in three, weakening the opponent.

It was a risky technique for an obvious reason: while their boats did not arrive there, they could not fire any shots, being entirely at the mercy of the enemy fire. In this case, the enemy ships could not help each other. And so it was. Just five hours after the start of the battle, aboard the Victory was sung victory. Lord Nelson never knew how right their strategy was, since he was hit by a fatal shot fired from the French ship Redoutable.

The Battle of Trafalgar had a relative significance in what concerns the strategy of Napoleon. At the time, the Emperor saw his domains grow, with victories at Ulm and Austerlitz, so devalued defeat.

However, in the medium term, the importance of Trafalgar proved crucial, since it meant the end of the idea of Napoleon to invade England, due to lack of vessels that would ensure the transportation and security of the French soldiers in an eventual landing. The output was found to block the waterways of England. No luck…

From the Spanish point of view, the defeat of Trafalgar ended up being almost fatal. First, the Spanish were almost without fleet. Then, under the Napoleonic blockade, saw the British take care of business with America.

More than the political-military event, what really fascinates is the vision of a man whose strategy led to a crushing victory, with few human and material losses to is side.

Values as the organization and definition of strategy produced positive results. A lesson with countless examples throughout history. Lord Nelson had won the Battle of Trafalgar, but lost his life. His body was moved to Gibraltar and from there to London. He was buried in St. Paul’s Cathedral.

5. Battle of Tsushima

The Russo-Japanese War of 1904/1905, marks the final emergence of Japan as a foreground power.
The sudden discovery of the ability of a country in the Far East defeat, with the same weapons, a powerful Eurasian power, caused a tremendous impact on world public opinion.

The balance of forces among Western countries and the rest of the world, was for the first time, clearly challenged.

The European hegemony on the other continents, of essentially colonial character, was decisively challenged.

It was the beginning of a long process that still continues today, which progressively reversed the balance of the existing power so far extremely favorable to the West.

The Russo-Japanese War was caused by intention to conquer Korea and Manchuria by the Russians and the Japanese. After the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the Russians forced the Japanese to restore Port Arthur. Russian troops occupied the territory and expanded by Manchuria. Several diplomatic agreements were tempted. Then the Japanese took possession of the harbor, confronted and defeated opponents.

This was the first time a European country was overcome by an Asian nation. This war served to exacerbate the Russian crisis in its Tsarist regime, and subsequently triggered the Russian Revolution in 1917.

The Battle of Tsushima, commonly known as the “Naval Battle of the Japan Sea” and as the “Battle of Tsushima Strait”, was the last and most decisive naval battle of the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905.
Was fought on 27-28 May 1905 (14-15 May in the Julian calendar in use in Russia then) in the Tsushima Strait.

In this battle, Japanese fleet under the command of Admiral Togo Heihachiro destroyed two-thirds of the Russian fleet, under the command of Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky. The Russian commander was captured by the Japanese. Historian Edmund Morris called it the greatest naval battle since Trafalgar. The Battle of Tsushima was the only sea battle in history where battleships had a decisive action within the army.

The battle demonstrated that large guns over long ranges were more advantageous during naval battles than mixed batteries of different sizes. In the naval battle, the Russian fleet was disadvantaged in relation to the Japanese in terrestrial confrontation Japan had a large advantage in contingent of soldiers.

While the Russian army counted 80,000 soldiers poorly prepared, the Japanese had 270,000 trained and equipped soldiers.

On May 27, 1905, the Russians sent 38 ships to Japanese territory, 27 were destroyed. At the end of the battle the Russians had 4380 dead, 1862 wounded and 5917 prisoners, 117 killed and 583 wounded.
This was also known as the first great war of the twentieth century.

4. Battle of Jutland

The battle of Jutland was the largest naval battle of World War I and the only full-scale clash of battleships that took place in that war. Through criteria activated is the largest naval battle in history.

The battle took place between May 31 and June 1, 1916 and naval forces fighting were the British and German fleets. The results were uncertain due to heavy losses suffered by both parties.

But from a strategic point of view, the British continued to dominate the sea. The fight began when the two fleets threw themselves towards each other, without, however, their admirals were aware of what was going to happen next. Each thought he would fight only with a part of the enemy force.

It was a exemplary case of failure of game theory, where ships of all two fleets faced each other. Never in the history of mankind, so many men and ships clashed in combat. Both naval formations cost more than the Gross Domestic Product of the two great powers. The British fleet consisted of 28 battleships, 9 cruisers, 8 heavy cruisers, 26 light cruisers and 77 destroyers and torpedo boats, and a seaplane. The German fleet consisted of 16 battleships, 6 cruisers, 11 light cruisers, 61 destroyers and destroyers, and 18 submarines.

The most important naval episode of World War I occurred in the waters of Jutland (Denmark) to 31 May 1916, between the large British fleet under the command of Sir John Jellicoe, and the German High Sea Fleet Admiral Reinhard Scheer, occurred in two phases, ending with the escape of the German fleet, although the British have lost 3 heavy cruisers, 3 cruisers, 8 destroyers and 6097 men, compared with 1 battleship, 1 heavy cruiser, 4 cruisers, 5 destroyers and 2545 men in the German part.

However, despite the British losses were superior to the German, the English became masters of the sea at the end of the battle, and during the rest of the war, the German surface fleet had to remain immobilized at their bases.

3. Battle of Java Sea

Battle of the Java Sea was a major naval battle that occurred at the beginning of the Pacific War during World War II, between the Japanese and the Allied naval forces, which suffered a major defeat off the coasts of Indonesia and New Guinea on 27 February 1942 and subsequent days, breaking down into smaller but big confrontation battles, as the Battle of Sunda Strait, which turned the episode in the greatest naval battle of surface so far occurred since World War I.

At the end of the battles around Java, the main combined fleet of the Allies had been destroyed, with the loss of 10 ships and 2173 sailors.

The battle also put an end to the Allied naval operations in Southeast Asia in 1942, culminating with the Japanese invasion of Java (Indonesia) on 28 February, causing the retreat of the few surviving planes of the U.S. Air Force and of the RAF still in the country.

For one week, British and Dutch troops in the islands still fought and resisted the attacker until the total surrender of the land to Japanese forces in March of that year. It was the only major battle between surface ships at the beginning of the Pacific War.

2. Battle of the Coral Sea

It was a naval battle fought in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Luisíadas Archipelago in the Pacific Ocean, between 4 and May 8, 1942, between U.S. and Australian forces, by the Allies, and ships of the Imperial Navy of Japan.

This was the first battle of the war in which carrier aircraft from both sides in combat attacked the enemy carriers.

Coral Sea was the first time in the whole war, that a Japanese naval force was faced with serious opposition – and many weaknesses were revealed there. The Americans, though still inexperienced in naval combat and even suffering the loss of the USS Lexington aircraft carrier, sank the Japanese aircraft carrier Shoho and damaged two others, the Shokaku and Zuikaku, forcing them to return to Japanese shipyards for long repairs, being unable to participate in the Battle of Midway a month later.

The U.S. squad was composed of: 2 aircraft carriers, 9 cruisers, 13 destroyers, 2 tankers, 1 seaplane and 128 aircraft, having suffered two damaged aircraft carrier, one with gravity. 1 destroyer and 1 tanker were sunk, 60 planes lost and 656 dead.

The Japanese fleet was composed of: 2 aircraft carriers, 1 light aircraft carriers, 9 cruisers, 15 destroyers, 5 minesweepers, 2 minelayer ships, 2 submarines, 3 gunboats, 1 tanker, 1 seaplane, 12 vessels transport and 127 aircraft.

1 light aircraft carrier and 1 destroyer were sunk, as 1 carrier, 1 destroyer, 2 minor war vessels, 1 transport vessels. 92 aircraft were shot and 966 deaths suffered.

This was the first naval battle between Japanese and Americans in the Pacific War.

1. Battle of Midway

Battle of Midway was a naval battle in June 1942 in the Pacific Ocean between the forces of the United States and Japan during World War II, six months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, which marked the beginning of the Pacific War.

The result of the battle was a decisive and crucial victory for the Americans, being remembered as the most important naval engagement of the World War II.

It marked the turning point in the conflict causing loss to the Japanese of four aircraft carriers and a cruiser in its fleet, plus 200 naval pilots in the failed attempt to invade and occupy Midway Atoll, permanently weakening its ability to fight at sea and in the air and removing them the military initiative for the rest of the war. It was one of the largest naval battles in history.

Conclusion: It is a naval battle all fighting occurred in the seas, oceans, or other large areas of water such as large lakes and great rivers. The oldest record of a naval battle took place in 1210 BC, in the coast of Cyprus.


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Roman Timeline of the 5th Century BC

The Twelve Tables are the first attempt to make a law code, and remained the only attempt for nearly one thousand years.

Typically, Roman prisons were not used to punish criminals, but instead served only to hold people awaiting trial or execution.

The Tribune of the Plebes (tribunus plebis) was a magistracy established in 494 BC. It was created to provide the people with a direct representative magistrate.

A copy of the acts of the Deified Augustus by which he placed the whole world under the sovereignty of the Roman people.

This book reveals how an empire that stretched from Glasgow to Aswan in Egypt could be ruled from a single city and still survive more than a thousand years.

This second edition includes a new introduction that explores the consequences for government and the governing classes of the replacement of the Republic by the rule of emperors.

During the period, the government of the Roman empire met the most prolonged crisis of its history and survived. This text is an early attempt at an inclusive study of the origins and evolutions of this transformation in the ancient world.

Swords Against the Senate describes the first three decades of Rome's century-long civil war that transformed it from a republic to an imperial autocracy, from the Rome of citizen leaders to the Rome of decadent emperor thugs.

Rome's first emperor, Augustus, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, has probably had the most lasting effect on history of all rulers of the classical world. This book focuses on his rise to power and on the ways in which he then maintained authority throughout his reign.

How Salamis compares to other naval battles of the time ?

Sources/read more

Herodotus’ Histories, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius

The models corner

Zvezda 500788514 1:72 Greek Triere
-Envy scale models 1:72 (hand built and painted)
-Dusek ships kits 1:72
-Amati 1:35 Bireme Salamis

-Salamis – Christian Cameron
-Charles River editors – The battle of Salamis
–The wooden walls that saved greece – MMD-Squadron Signal
-The Battle of Salamis: The Naval Encounter that Saved Greece – and Western Civilization by Barry Strauss
-Lords of the Sea: The Epic Story of the Athenian Navy and the Birth of Democracy by John R. Hal
-Salamis 480 BC – the campagn which saved greece, osprey Publishing, W. Shepherd, P. Denis
-Osprey New Vanguard – Ancient Greek Warships – Nic Fields, Peter Bull
-Osprey wargame: Poseidon’s warriors – John Lambshead
-The Greco-Persian wars – Peter Green

BBC Podcast
Bilge mode ?

-Engineering an Empire (2005–2007), Episode: Greece (2006). Docu.
-300: Zack Snyder’s Rise of an empire (from the comic, to take with a truck of salt)

Watch the video: History of Syracuse - Part 2 - The Tyranny of Hieron (December 2021).